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 길희성]인도철학사  

    εöл
    : 
    쳽: () 
    1984 4 30 ǹ
    1994 2 25 쳿(8)


    : б  öа . Ϲٵб  .
    - Chinul, the Founder of the Korean Son Tradition
     б а 



     Ӹ
   å εö    ܰ ÿ  ĵ öл ΰ
ҰϷ ǵ .
  ε ö   屸  ɿ ,  پ缺 , ׸
  Կ ־   ȭǿ  öа  
̴.
 ε  Ŀ Ϻ  ڵ   Ǿ Դ. ׷
츮  ־ εö    ̾ ¿ ִٴ  
̴.
  ̰ ұ 츮  ȭ   ٰ ̷ ִٴ Ϳ ߾  
  ̶ ƴ  . ֳϸ  ұ ε ߻Ͽ
   ұϰ ұ ٺ     ε
  뿡 Ѹ ΰ  װͰ ȣۿ ӿ ұ Ǿ
̴.
  п εöл縦   л鿡    
Ұϸ鼭 ڴ   å ̾  ߴ.  ܿ 
    å 쳻  ེ Ѵ.   ϰ
 ε ö    ö Ѵٴ    
ƴϸ ϻ ΰ   ӿ Ʋ. õк ڷμ εöп 
ϳ   ٴ  ʹ  ġ ̴. ڿ  å 
κ ڰ   ƴ  о̱⿡  ϰ  ٸ κ ׷  

  ۿ .  εöп Ͽ   Ǹ 
ĺ Թ Ƿ ̵κ ū    ־.  ñ ̱⿡
 鼭 켱 ڸ  ۱ ϸ   ޾ư
ؼ ϰ    Ѵ.
   εε  ٺ 񿪻̾ٴ   ˷ Ƿμ, ̰
ڿ ׵ ö 뿡 ݿǰ ִ.  εö  ǹ̿
 ٷٴ     ִ. 켱 ߿ 󰡿 
뿡 Ͽ  ̰ߵ ϴ 찡 Ϻϸ, ׵  
   ڷᰡ ־ ִ 찡  ʱ ̴. ׷ٰ  ε
簡   ε Ͽ    Ұϴٴ  ǹϴ  

ƴϴ. ׷ ε öл ô ̿  ġ ȸ, ׸ ȭ ȸ
Ϲݿ  ϰų ϴ    ̸ ݱ ̷ 鿡
   ߰ϱ ƴ. ׷  ڴ  å  ö İ
DZ  ñ   ô  õ ϸ鼭 ߰, 
    ѷġ  ļ   ñʹ (2: ε ö ü
ȭ)
ַ ĵ üȭ ö 뿡  ξ ߴ, ׷ ν  ̹
    öԹ    ֱ ̴. 4 
ε ſ ϰ ޵Ǿ ִ.   ٵ  ǹ̿ ε
<ö>̶ θ      ʱ ̴. ׸ 11
ε  Ͽ  ε α 5 1  ϰ ִ ̽
     д.
    å    ܿ 縦 帮  κ
  Ͽ  Ƴ  б öап 翡Ե
 ǥѴ.
   1984 2 22
   


    εöл/
   Ӹ
    1 εö 
  1 εö 
    1. εö 
    2. ε̻ 
    3. νķа 
    4. εö  ô 
  2  öл
    1.   
    2. < > ö 
    3. 帶 ö 
  3 Ĵϻ ö
    1. Ĵϻ 
    2. ʱ Ĵϻ ö
    3. ı Ĵϻ ö
  4 Ķ󹮰 ö 
    1.  
    2. ܵ
    3. íī ö
    4.  ̳ 
    5. úұ
  5 ҽºĺұö 
    1. ĺұ 
    2. º ö
    3. ü ö
    4. 淮ο ں
    5. ߺ ұ
  6 Ķ󹮱 
    1. Ķ󹮱 ұ
    2. ٽŰ 񽴴 ž
    3. <ٰٵ Ÿ> 
    4. <ؼǰ> Ÿ öл
    5. Ķ ȸ Ȯ

    2 εö ü 
  7 Ű . 䰡 ö
    1. εö üȭ
    2. Ű . 䰡ö  
    3. 
    4. 
    5. ؼ
  8 · ö
    1. ·ö 
    2. 
    3. , ΰ߷, Ż
  9  ö
    1. ö 
    2.  ǹ̿ 
    3.  ̷
    4. ߷ ̷
    5. 񱳿 
    6. ھ, , ؼ
  10 ºұ 
    1. ºұ 
    2.  °
  11 ߰ö
    1.  ߰ö 
    2. <߷> ö
  12 ı ° 
    1.  
    2. Ļ 
    3.   
    4.<> <±ŷ>
  13 ö
    1. ö 
    2. ģ ö
  14 ģ  ö
    1.  ұ νķ
    2.  ұ 
  15 ̳ öü
    1. ̳ νķ
    2. ̳ ̻
  16 ̸ ö
    1. ̸ö 
    2. ̸ νķ
    3. ̸ ̻
    4. ؼ
  17 ̷ Ÿö
    1. ī  Ÿö
    2. ī ̷ Ÿö
    3. ī  ̷ Ÿö
  
    3  ö 
  18 ̷ Ÿö
    1. ̷  
    2. 󸶴 ̻
    3. ؼ
  19 񽴴 Ÿö
    1. 󸶴  εö 
    2.  ̿ Ÿö
    3. Թٸī ̷̺
    4. ߶ ̷
    5. íŸϾ  Ÿö
  20  ö
    1.  ö  
    2. ̹ ˴Ÿ ö
    3. ν ö
  
    4  ε
   21 ε  
     1. ̽ α
     2.  ġ α 
   22  εö
     1. κ ö
     2. ũ ö
 
   η
     1. εö 
     2. ε  ְ
     3. εö  ġ.ȭ ǥ
   
     ѱ. 
     θ 



      1  εö 

      1  εö 

   1. εö 
  ö ̰ Ѵٰ   ö̶ ܼ ΰ   屸
Ű Ǵ  ƴϴ.  ö  Ŀ ٰŸ 캼  ,
ö̶  ñ    ٺ ɻ ذ  ΰ Ӿ 

̴.
׸ ΰ ߱    ɻ θ ͵  ׵ ó ִ
ȭ   Ȳ   ̿ پ缺 ش.
  εöе  ε  ȸ ȭ, ׸ ׵ ߱   ġ
̻  ص  .  εε  ΰ  ߱ؾ  4
ġ purusartha  Դ.    kama,  artha, ǹ dharma, ׸ Ż moksa
,
̵   ġ  ΰ ü ʿ ϰ 䱸  ΰ ִ
̴. ̶ ΰ    ſ  ߱ϴ ̸, ζ ູ 

 Ǵ  dz並 ǹϸ, ǹ ȸ μ ΰ  
     Ű, Ż̶ ΰ   Ϸ 
   ̴.
  εö ϴ   ڵ εö  ɻ ٵ Ż
߱ ִٰ ǰ  ִ. ,  ϸ ΰ 뽺 ϰ ӹڵ
 ʿϿ ̰     ִ° ϴ  ε ö 
Ŀ  ִ ִ ɻ ̴. ̷  εö   ä
ϰ ִٰ ص  ̴. ⼭ ̶ ϴ ,  뿡ó
 ʿ ſ Ͽ ־ ̼ ÿ ٰ žӻȰ ǹϴ 
ƴ϶, ö Ȱ ϴ ñ ǥ  屸 Ű  ϰ 
Ѵ, ȭϴ ٿ  翡 ־ ö  ȭ뿡 Ͽ,
 긮  뿡 ⺻ ΰ ֱ , 翡 öа  ̿
׽ 谡 Ͽ Դ. ׷ ̷ ȭ ٺ ߼  ʴ
ε öа  ̿ ׷ 븳谡  ʾҴ ̴. Ӹ ƴ϶
ε   ٺݻ  ̼  ÿ ٰŸ  ž ⺸ٴ
 ΰ  ź ü迡    ϹǷ, 翡 ϴ 
žӰ ̼ faith and reason 븳̶   ʾҴ ̴. ٸ 
ٲپ    ε  ö ,ε ö  ö̶ ص
 ̴.
  ε Ż     ϱ ؼ  츮 ׵  ΰ

 Ȳ ϰ ־°  ߿ϴ.
  ε ΰ  ȸ samsaraϴ ̶ ߴ. λ   ƴ϶
Ĺ   ؼ   Ǯϸ    ϰԲ Ǿ
ִٴ ̴. ΰ   karma ѷ  bija Ƽ ݵ   phala,
   , 츮        
Ʊ   ϳ, Ȥ ϳ ̻    ΰ ȴٴ ̴.
 ε λ   ,     ݴ    
 ν  ü Ȥ   å ȸǵ  ִ ͵ ƴϴ. 
ݴ  ϳ  ǹϱ ̴.
    ΰ ü ̺й ΰ̾.   ȥ ü soul and
body Ǿ ִٴ ̴. ̿ʹ ޸ ε ΰ Ƽ anatman ϴ
ұ ϰ ü ΰ     ִٰ  й ΰ
ְ ִ. ε "Ĵϻ Upanisad" ̷ ΰԴ һҸ 
ھ atman  Ѵٴ   Դ.  ھƴ ȸ 迡 
ϴ  ھƿʹ  ٸ μ,  ھƸ  ھƷκ Ȯϰ
Ͽ ȥ ʰ νϴ  εο ־ ְ ö  ֵǾ
Դ.   ھƶ    manas üμ 츮 . 
 ھƸ ǹѴ. εö      ̸ 
ʴ´.  翡  ̿ ΰ ߴ޵ ʾ,   ھ
 ھƿ  ھ,  Ȥ ̻ ھƿ  ھƿ  

߽õǰ  ̴. ΰ ȸ 迡  ϴ  ڱ ھƸ 
ϰ θ  ھ,   ھƿ Ͻϱ ̶ Ѵ.
 ھ , ׸ ھƿ  ھƿ 迡 ؼ ε öе 
ٸ ظ ̰ ֱ ϳ,    ھ ȥ ¸ λ ִ 
  뼺 ϰ ִ ̴.  Ͽ ھư  ھ
κ عǾ      ִ° ϴ  εö ٺ 

ɻ̴.   ̴  踦 Ѿ  ʴ  踦
Žϴ ̻  εö ٰ ̷  ̴.

   2. ε̻ 

   Russel  'öл'    ϰ ִ.
     ݰ  Ͽ    ϴ. ̻п ־
̶   ־ٸ װ ̷   ٵ  Ǿ
ٰ Ǿ ,  Ǵ  ڵ鿡  Ǵ ݴ鿡 ϱ
Ͽ    籸Ǵ  ִ ̴. ̷ ü ϳ ϳ 
ָ ϴ     ſ̸ ǿ  ص̴.
 ̵  ϳ    Ͽ    ü,  ٸ
˷     Ϸ  ʿѰ ߰ϴ    ̴

  츮 ̷ ̻п   ظ εöп ״   ִٰ
. ̶̻  ñ    ü  ṵ̈ 
ؼ̸,  ؼ ϳ   ϰ ִ.  ߴϱ  ̷
ؼ ü谡 ڱ״ ޾Ƶ鿩 ̺а   ؿ, ó
̻ü踦   ν ϱ ư  ̴. ׷ٰ Ͽ 
öڵó ̻ ǹ  ľϴ ͵   ̻ 
״ Ϸ Ǹ   ġ ̴.  ̶ 
 Ǵ    κ ̽Ŀ ѵǴ ̸, ̻
ٺ ̿ʹ ǵ ٸ ̴.   ̻ ΰ  ñ ǹ̸ ã 

 ϴ  ־ ʿ   ü   ľ   ظ 

  ٺ ִ ̴.
  ε ̻       Ż̶ ̻ տ
, ̰   ϱ⿡, Ȥ   ̱⿡ ̷ 
   ִ°  Ͽ ̷ ̴.1)  츮
ϰڰŴϿ ε öе ̷  Ͽ  ñ ,  ñ 

󼼰 , 󼼰迡 ſ ִ ̰ ,   ϸ  󼼰踦
غϰ   迡 ϰ ɱ ϴ  ؼ   ظ
ϴ ̴.

  3 νķа 
  εö ̷     ̻ ̷ ߴ Ͽ 
νķ  ߴٰ ؼ ȵȴ.  ׿ʹ ݴ ε κ
öĵ ڱ ̻ ؼ ޹ħŰ  װͰ Ұи 踦
 ν  ׽ ٷ  ùٸ   ؼ ö ʰ
  Դ. ׸Ͽ  ν Ÿ  pramana   ִ° Ͽ
 ĵ  м Ͽ. ü     pratyaksa
̿ ٰ ߷ anumana, ׸   Ÿ  sabda, Ư  Veda 
  ֿ ν  ϰ Ǿ.    ϴ 
ϴĴ ߿ μ  ε  ö װ ϴ   öа astika

װ  ʴ,   ұ ̳ Jaina ,  nastika
еDZ⵵ Ѵ. Ÿ ν  ̳Ŀ    ʴ ̻
翡  ظ ޸ θ ʿ䰡 .   ĵ   Ͽ
ɰ   ̴.
  ̻    , εö δ  ɿ ԰ ̻
纯 ̸ ° ϸ,  ٸ δ νķа  ϰ  

Ͽ ̻ 纯   ޹ħŰ ߴٰ   ִ.

  4. εö  ô 
  εö ũ  4    ִ. 1 B.C. 1500 B.C.200
濡 ̸ ̴.  ñ 켱 ε ְ ٰ  ñ̴. Ư
  ö κ  Ĵϻ Upanisad ļ ü öĵ鿡Լ ߰ߵ

߿     μ   κ ϰ ִ. 
εȭ ü θ  ִ 뼭 <ϹٶŸ Mahabharata> ü
B.C.200濡 Ǿ ־,  ȿ 츮   ö  ãƺ
 ִ. Ư 'ϹٶŸ' Ϻκ 'ٰٵ Ÿ Bhagavad Gita' α
̶̺ Ҹ    μ,   üȭ ִ  ǰ

ö  ƴ   ߿ ö   ִ.  ñ 
ұ ̳ , ٿ ٶ Brahmana    ʴ ٶ
ö Ͽ  ٶ󹮱 ϰ  ṉ̃⵵ ϴ. Ư ε 
Ͽ 츮( 320-183 B.C.)  ұ Ƽī(269-232 B.C.) Ǹ
޾ εӸ ƴ϶ α  ϳ  ϰ Ǿ.
  εö 2 B.C. 200  Ͽ A.D. 1000濡 ̸ ü 
.
  Ÿ   ̵ ö پȭǰ ȭǾ ħ 20
ĺұ 븳  Ǿ,    ĵ ڱ ö 
" abhidharma"  üȭŰ Ǿ.   ǥ  º
Theravada ü Sarvastivada ̴.
  ̷ ұ ö Ȱ ڱ ޾ ٶ󹮱 پ  
 üȭǾ ǥǰ Ǿ. ̵  ڱ ö  " sutra"
 ϰ ߴ. ̸ Mimamsa  "̸  Mimamsa-sutra",
Ÿ Vedanata  "帶 Brahma-sutra",  Nyaya  "߰
Nyaya-sutra". ̼νī Vaisika  "̼νī Vaisesika-sutra", Ű Samkhya
 "Ű߼ Samkhyakarika", 䰡 Yoga  "䰡 Yoga-sutra"   
üȭô ݱ⿡  μ  ö ٺ  ̴. ̵
ö     ϰ ̾  üμ 縮 ϱⰡ
Ƿ ڿ ׵鿡  ּ  Ǿ, ̵ ּ  ٸ
 ָ ϰ Ǿ. εö ̷  ̷ ּ Ȱ Ͽ
̷  ̴. ̰  ö ٺ ߽ ̷ Ͱ 
 ִ μ, ε   öڵ ƹ ڱⰡ ο  

 ݵ ڱⰡ  ĸ ߽ Ͽ  Ŀ   ִ
̳ ּ ؼϴ  Ͽ ̴. ε  ǽ ϴٰ
 ϰŴϿ ̿   ߽ϴ ߽ öȰ ε ö
  񿪻缺    ־. εöл翡 ־ κ
߿ öڵ ׵  븦 Ȯϰ   ٴ   쿬 ƴ
̴.
  εö 2⿡  ºұ Ͽ  ° Ұ ̿ Ҿ
¼е ߴ޵Ǿ ߰ Madhyamika, 䰡 Yogacara  ĵ Ǿ.
̵ ºұ öе Ķ  ö  ū  ġ Ǿ.
  εö 3 11 18 ó ̸ Ⱓμ, ġδ  ñ
ε ̽ ħ ޾ ׵ ġ Ͽ   ̴. ұ
̹ ε 信   Ǿ   缺  
ٶ󹮱      žӿ յǾ  츮
"α Hinduism" θ  ִ ̰  μ ڸ  Ǿ.
ٵ 񽴴 VisouŰ  Siva žӿ ε  ϰ Ǿ,
öе ڿ   ޾ ٺ      ǿ.
  Ⱓ ȿ 2 ü   ĵ ؼ ö Ȱ
Ͽ
 ּ Թ  м , εö â ñ ̹
ٰ
ص  ƴϴ.
   18 ȭ  εκ Ͽ ó ̸
Ⱓ εö 4   ִ.  ñ ε ε  
й Ͽ ׵ ڽ , ö, ȭ   ߰ϰ  ñμ,
̿ Ծ α  Ȱ Ǿ εö  ܺμ迡
Ұϴ  Ǿ. ׷ öδ  ѷϰ ο  ô
ϰ ִ.

   * 
  1. α  εȭ ݿ  å
  Basham, A.L., ^46,46^The Wonder that was ^46^India. New York, 1954. ̽
 εȭ ݿ  ִ .
  de Bary, W.T. ed., ^46,46^Sources of Indian ^46^Tradition. New York, 1958. ε
ȭ,  뿡   ڷ .
  Bechert, H. und von Simson, G., ^46,46^Einfuhrung in die Indologie, Stand,
Methoden, Aufgaben, Darmstadt, 1979. ε ݿ  ,   Ұ.
  Embree, A.T. ed., ^46^The ^46^Hindu ^46^Tradition. New York, 1966. ^46,46^Sources
of Indian ^46^Tradition   å.
  Eliot, C., ^46^Hinduism ^46^and ^46^Buddhism. 3 vols, London, 1922. α ұ
 
  Farquhar, J.N., ^46,46^an outline of the Religious Literature of ^46^india.
Oxford, 1920. ε 鿡  ؼ.
  Hopkins, T.J., ^46,46^The Hindu Religious  ^46^Tradition. California, 1971. α
  .
  Heimann, B., ^46,46Facets of Indian ^46^Thought. London, 1964. εȭ 
Ư¡鿡   ִ .
  Maajumder, R.C., H.C. Raychaudhuri, and K. Datta, ^46,46^An Advanced Histroy of
^46^ India. London, 1950.  ôκ  ̸ ε ġ, , ȸ,
.
  Renou, L.,^46,46^Religions of Ancient ^46^India. London, 1953. α  
Թ.
  ^46,46^La Civilisation de l'Inde ^46^ancienne. Paris, 1950. εд밡
εȭ .
  Thapa, R. ^46^A Histroy of ^46^India. Vol. I. Baltimore, 1966. 16  
 ε簳.
  Winternit, M. ^46,46^Geschichte der indischen ^46^Literatur. 3vols. Leipzing,
1909~1920. εл  ִ . S. Ketkar , ^46,46^History of
Indian Literature. 2vols. Calcutta, 1927~1933.
   2. εö ݿ   å
  Bhattacharyya, H., ed., ^46,46^The Cultural Heritage of ^46^India. Vol.3:
^46^The ^46^Philosophies. Calcutta, 1953.  εöڵ鿡   öĵ鿡  
.
  Chatterjee, S, and D. Datta, ^46,46^An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. εöп
  Թ.
  Cowell, E.B. and A.E. Gough, trans. ^46,46^The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha, London. 1914.
14 εö Madhava "öü谭" .
  Deussen, P., ^46,46^Allgemeine Geschichte der ^46^Philosophie. Vol I, 1-3.
Leipzig, 1894.  Ÿö   öл Ϻημ εöл.
  Dasgupts, S., ^46,46^A Histroy of Indian ^46^Philosophy. 5 vols. εöп 
 μ   å.
  Frauwallner, E., ^46,46^Geschichte der indischen ^46^Philosophie. Salzburg, 1953.
V.M. Bedekar , ^46,46^History of Indian ^46^Philosophy, 2 vols. Delhi, 1973.
̿ϼ εöл.
  Glasenapp, H. v., ^46,46^Entwicklungsstufen des indischen ^46^Denkens.  Halle,1940.
 εöп 밡  ε.
  ^46^Die Philosophie der ^46^Inder. Stuttgart, 1974.  εö  
ĺ .
  Hiriyanna, M., ^46,46^Outlines of Indian ^46^Philosophy. London, 1932.  θ

εö .
  Potter, K., ^46,46^Presuppositions of Indian ^46^Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, 1963.
εö ظ  ٺ鿡  ο .
  ed., ^46,46^Bibligraphy of Indian Philosophy.  εö    Ϻ
 з .
  Nakamura, H., ^46,46^aareligions and Philosophies of India: A Survey
with Bibliographical ^46^Notes. 3 vols. Tokyo, 1973.  Ϻ εд밡 
ε. ö ħ.
  Radhakrishnan, S. ^46^Indian ^46^Philosophy. 2 vols. London, 1923, 1927. 
ε ǥ  ϳ  εö   ؼ.
  Radhakrishnan, S. and C.A. Moore, eds., ^46,46^A Sourcebook in Indian
^46^Philosophy. Princeton, 1957. εö 1 ڷ() Ͽ
 .
  Ruben, W. ^46,46^Geschichte der indischen ^46^Philosophie. Berlin, 1954. 
  εöл.
  Sharma, C. ^46,46^Indian Philosophy: A critical ^46^survey. New York, 1962.
εöĿ   ؼ.
  Zummer, H. ^46^Philosophies ^46^of ^46^India. Princeton, 1951. εö ݿ 
ɿ ؼ.

  .
  1)   εöп      ̷    ؼ   õ   μ   Karl   H.   Potter 
^46,46^Presuppositions  of  india's ^46^Philosophies  (Englewood  Cliffs,  New Jersey: 
Prentice-Hall,inc., 1963) .



   2  öл

  1.   
  ε ־ ö   α ̸ְ κ  öĵ
  ϴ ٿ ãƺ  ִ.     ±
 1500 ε Ϻθ ħϿ ֹε ϰ ο  ٰŸ 
Ƹ Aryan̾. ׵   ī罺  ʿ뿡 
μ  ε Indo-European     Ϻο.
̵ ε  ±  2000濡 ʿ  ٸ  ̵ϰ
Ǿ       Ͽ  ̵
Ƹ δ ̶濡 ϰ ٸ δ Ͻź Ͽ
ε Ϻθ ħϿ  ̴. ׵ ̷ Ÿ û  ⸦
 ο  μ  1500⿡ 1000 ̿  Panjab ϰ
ٹȭ ̷ ̴. ׵  꽺ũƮ Sanskritμ ε
 Ѵ.
  ٴ    ΰ Ǿ װ 뷫  ¸ ߰  
A.D  200 ķ ȴ. ٴ   εε鿡 Ͽ ſ  
ǽ  . ׷ ſ  ĵ    
ĵ ְϴ е 4׷(hotr, udgatr, adhavaryu, brahman) 
Ǿ. ٵ  ׷鿡  Ǵ 뵵  "  Rg Veda", "ָ
 Yajur Vwda", "Ÿ  Atharva Veda" 4 Ǿ ǰ Ǿ.
 ߿   ߿ϰ    ö ġ   " "
̸, "Ÿ " Ȥ ö 纯 ãƺ  ִ.
   ٴ   ΰ   ڿ  ȿ  ô ̸ ݿϴ
   ǰ Ǿ.   4 ٴ  4κ Ǿ
ִ.
ù° ַ ŵ鿡   ⵵ Ʈ mantra   Samhita̰, °
 İ ǹ̵ ϰ ϴ 깮  帶 Brahmana̸, 
帶   и Aranyaka ö   dz Ǵϻ
Upanisad ηó  ִ. ٶ󹮱 뿡 ϸ   κ ַ Ǹ
߽  ΰ  ǹ ֿ ̹Ƿ " Karma.kanda"̶ Ҹ,
  κ ö  ߿ κ ̷ٰ Ͽ " Jnana.kanda"̶
θ.  ־ Ĵϻ ε öл õ ̷ ſ ߿ ̸,
   ִٰ Ͽ Ÿ Vedanta Ī  ִ. ε ϴ
ڵ  ε  帶  깰̸, Ĵϻ
öڵκ Դٰ Ѵ.  κ Ư¡   ̶ ϰڴ. ƶī
Aranyaka 帶  ߽ 󿡼 Ĵϻ ö. ̻ 纯
Ѿ ⸦ ǥϴ μ    ѷ ʾ  帶
ǻ ϱ    ִ.    κп Ÿ  ö   
.1)
  1) ''      ȴ. Ƿ   
κи
ǹϳ Ƿδ 帶 Ĵϻ带  Ͽ ´ ̴. 츮 켱
⼭  ǹ̷ ϱ Ѵ.

    2 " " ö 
   εε ڿ 迡 Ͽ  ź񰨰 ̰ . ׵
ڿ ε  ó  ΰ Ģ Ͽ Ǵ  ü
  ƴ϶ ϴ ź񽺷  Ͽ Ǵ ִ   ̴.
׸Ͽ ̷ ź񽺷 ڿ Կ ־ ׵   Ŀ  
ִ ΰ  ϰ ִٰ  ⵵  縦    
ΰ 踦  ߴ. ̷ ΰȭ ڿ  " " 1028
۰  ǰ ִ  ŵ ̴.  ŵ ڿ迡 ־
׵ Ȱ
    з  ִ. ,   ȣڶ Ҹ ٷ糪,
ϴ  콺, ¾  Ʈ    ϴÿ ϴ ŵ, õհ
dz  ε, dz  Ʈ, ٶ     ϴ ,
׸    ȵǴ   Ʊ״,  Ҹ,   Ƽ
 
ŵ ̴. ̷ ڿ ŵ ̿ܿ  ε ΰ ӿ ź
  ͵鵵 ΰݽȭϿ  ߴ.     ̳
⵵  Brhaspati  ̴. ε  , ΰݰ 繰,
Ű ,
ü Ӽ Ȯ  ʴ   Ҵٰ   ִ.(2)
  ŵ ϰ ִ ڿ  ̰  谡 ƴ϶  Ģ
ϰ ִٴ   ε ν   Ģ "Ÿ"
 ǥߴ. "Ÿ"  꽺ũƮ  ""  ϴµ,
繰 ڿ ϴ    ǹѴ. ̴ ߱  信
Ѵٰ  
ְڴ.̹  ٷ糪 ٷ     ΰ  
ϰ ִ μ  ε  ö ߻  Ÿ
̶ ϰڴ. ̷   " " ٷ糪  ׷ ߴ 
  
Ƹ   ֵǴ dz  ε Ȥ 翡   
  Ʊ״ϰ   ε   .
  ׷ ٿ ־ 츮 ָ   ̿  踦   
ȴٰ  ٽű  ܿ ̹     Ŀ ִ
     ǽĵ ־ٴ ̴.   
Ƽ 񽴹ī   âμ صDZ⵵ Ͽ, Ǵ ƹ
ΰ  ݵ   ߻ , ̻   'Tad Ekam'  That
One صDZ⵵ Ͽ. Ƽ ' '  ,  ٸ
ŵ Īȣμ Ǵٰ ߿  â μ θ Ǿ,
񽴹ī '   '  ߽  ε ¾ŵ  ŵ
Ī̾   ΰȭǾ â  ǰ  ̴.
  , " " Ÿ Ͽ ̻     'â
Hymn of creation'̶ Ҹ   ö ̴.

  ʿ    ƴ ͵ . ⵵    ϴõ  -
絵 ׶  һ絵  ̳  ǥ¡ .    ü

Ͽ ٶ   ־,  ܿ ƹ͵ . ó  ҿ
 ־  ǥ¡     ̾. ó  ڼ 
.  깰,   , ε  μ ã ӿ 
 ߰ߴ - â    ־, Ʒ   浿
־ - ŵ   âĿ ¾. ׷   谡 κ
 ˰ڴ°? -   ϴÿ 踦 Ǵ , ׸ ˰. ƴ ׵
𸦷 𸥴.
   â   ǥ ־ Һи    ⼭ ϴ
ڶ
 ΰ    ƴϸ  赵  â ߴٱ ٴ 
ϳ  κ   ûϰ ִ. ׸ ŵ  
âĿ
ٰ ν ٽű  и ʿϰ ִ.   ڶ
̻ 簡 Ĵϻ忡ó   ΰ̰ ߻ 信
̸ ϰ  '',''  ǥ Ͽ   ִ. Ӹ ƴ϶  ڰ
 Ͽ ߻Ǿٰ ϴ   Ͽ  ö  Ű
ִ.  ׷ " " ٸ   ϱ⸦ ' ϳ 縦 ε
  θ '(4)  Ͽ ŵ   ñ  پ ǥ 
ʴ´ٴ Ͽ  и ְ ִ ̴. 
   ŵ  ڿӸ ƴ϶ ΰ ȭ  Ѵٰ
. ׵ ΰ     ǿ    .
׷     Ű 迡 صǸ, Ĵϻ Ŀ
־ó  ΰ ΰ   ī Ģ ƴϴ.
ΰ     迡 ´ٴ  Ÿ ,  
õ󿡼 ŵ Բ, Ȥ  Բ  ູ  ٰ ε
Ͼ. , ΰ    ¾,  ٶ,  , ʹ , 
޿ ưٰ ϴ ΰ ϳ ҿַ   ãƺ  ִ.
ȥ Ҹ    ȥ  и  ãƺ ƴ.
ΰ ī Ģ   ȸ 迡 縦 Ǯؾ Ѵٴ ̳ 
׿ ݵǴ Ż ̻  ãƺ  . ü ε  õ̸ 
ٰ̾   ִ.


    3 帶 ö 
  帶  ϰ ؼ ؼμ, ַ  İ ǹ̿ 
  ϴ ̴. Ȯ    ,   900 700
̿ Ǿٰ ȴ.  ߿   ϰ   ߿

'ָ '  ִ 'ŸŸ 帶'̴.  帶  , 
Ŀ Թ ϴ κ DZ   Vidhi,   ۰Mantra ǹ, 
      ִ κ Ƿ еȴ.
  帶   ٵ 츮 ָ    ȭ̸, 
簡     Ǿ ִٴ ̴. ̰ ð  
  ȭǾ  Ķ,   ȸ   ǥ ֵȴ.
  ſ   ǥ̰ų Ȥ ŵ Ǹ ҿϴ, 
 ߽ , ǽ  ȭǰ    ü
  Ǿ,   ü ȿ ϴ  ŵ ̴
ƹ  ٰ ϰ Ǿ.   ϴ  ŵ ƴ϶ ٷ
ùٸ  ü̸,     ٰ ϰ  ̴.
߿ 츮 ϰ ö  ϳ Ǫ ̸Ĵ ̷
 ڷμ,   ƹ ǹ̸  ʴ´ٰ Ѵ.
  縦  ǹ̸   ϴ  '׺' ̹ Ÿ ִ.
 '׺' 10 90ۿ ŵ鿡 Ͽ   ΰ  ν
  ü ٰܳ Ѵ.   κ , κ , κ
ȵ Ʊ״Ͻ, ׸ κ ٶ  ,  κ ߱,
Ӹκ ϴ, ߷κ , ͷκ  ٴ ̴. Ӹ ƴ϶  ü
缺޵   Ͽ ٰܳ Ѵ.  ٶ  ̾ ũƮƴ
  , ̻   ٸ, ׸   ٰ̾ Ѵ.  
  ¡ ǹ̸ , ٵ   ü 
ٺ Ǿ  Ͻϰ ִ ̴. 帶 ̷  ְ
 Ͽ  ϰ ִ  ҵ   ŵ̳ 
¡ Ѽ,   ü ٺ Ǹ     ü
ϰ ִٰ Ѵ.  ̷  ְϴ ٶ󹮰޵ ŵ  ġ
 ֵǰ ִ. 'ŸŸ 帶' ϱ⸦, "ſ   ִ. 
̸, нĿ ־ ٿ ȿ ٶ ΰ ̴" ϰ  ̴.
̷  κ εöп ־  ߿伺 ϰ Ǵ  
 Ʈ Ǿ 츮 ָؾ Ѵ.
  ù°, 常̶   μ  Ÿ  ̴.
  ٿ ̹ ߰ߵǸ, ۰ ⵵  ּ , Ȥ    ִ
ź  ߴ. ׷   ϴ 帶 ͼ 翡
 ϴ  ǹϰ Ǿ,    ٽ ̷  
õ̱⿡ ÿ   ŵ Ŀ ִ ٿ    ǹϰ
 ̴. 'ŸŸ 帶' ϱ⸦, "    常̾.
װ ŵ â߰,  Ŀ  ŵ Ͽ  鿡  ߴ. , Ʊ״ϴ
 ,  ߿,  ϴÿ"  常 ŵ Ǹ ׵ 
ٿ Ǵ  ñ    ̴. ׸ ̺常 ÿ 縦
ְϴ ٶ󹮰޿ ϰ ִ ź ̱⵵  ̴. ̷ 常
 Ĵϻ忡 ͼ  ȭǰ Ǿ εöп ־  ߿
 Ǿ.
   帶 󿡼  °     ΰ 
̴. 帶    ַ  μ, ùٸ  
 ڿ Ģ ,  濡  ڵ   ʷϰԲ
Ǿ ִٴ ̴. '׺' ڿ Ģ ǹϴ Ÿ 
帶 ͼ ٵ ùٸ ǽİ   Ͽ ׿ մ
 ʿ ʷϰԲ ϴ  Ģ ǹϰ  ̴. εöп
־  ̴ٽ  ī() Ģ   ̷ 帶
  Ǿ   ִ ̴.
    ܿ 帶   پ ö  ߰ߵȴ.
  踦 Ű ִ ٺ Ҽ ʸ   , ΰ 
ؼ Ű ü ľϿ ϰ  ڸ 'Ʈ(ھ)',
'(DZ)', '()'  ̸ θ ִ. ̵ 鿡  
帶 Ŀ  Ǿ  Ư ǹ̸ ϰ Ǿ,  õ
帶   ʿ䰡 ִ. Ư Ʈ  ߿   
  ǰ  ſ ǹִ Ϸμ, Ĵϻ忡  ̿ 
  ִ  ߰  ִ.



     3 Ĵϻ ö

  1 Ĵϻ 
  ٿ 帶 ̹ ̱   εο    
  Ĵϻ忡 ͼ   ̷.  ̴ پ  
ñ   ʰ    ʴ   ŽϷ
̻
̴.   δ ΰȭ ڿμ ŵ  ³
 ʿϿ ׵ 쿡 ִ   ٺ ϳ ſ  ߱ Ÿ.
 Ư ݰ   ŵ   迡 ӹ ִ 
μ,   ñ  ߱ϴ Ĵϻ öε   ̻
ų   ̴. ׵ ߱ϴ ö  ǥ װ ν
ٸ  ͵ ˰ Ǵ  ϳ ٿ   ü ̴. Ĵϻ
̷  ε ̻  깰μ,   εö ü  
ġ Ǿ.   ġϰ ִ Ͽ Ÿ(  Ȥ )
Ҹ, ö ϳ Ÿ ö  ̷ Ӹ ƴ϶, ٸ  Ŀ 
  ġ Ǿ.
  ̹   ٴ  뿡 ־ ΰ , Ư  ǹ 
ٷ , ̻  ٷ  Ǿ Դ. Ĵϻ
 ڿ ϴ ̴.  Ĵϻ忡 ̻  ̿ܿ 
帶  ǿ       ,  Ư
ö Ǵ  ̻  ߰ߵǴ ̴.
  Ĵϻ ̻   ܼ  ȣɿ   ƴ϶,
׽ ϴ ϰ 뽺 󼼰 ü ʿϿ  翡 Ϸ
ο   ԰ ̾. Ĵϻ忡 ͼ  εε ΰ
̶ ī Ģ Ͽ ȸ 迡  縦 Ǯؾ ϴ
̶ ϰ Ǿ. ġ Ǯ  ٻͿ ٸ ٻͷ Űܰ
    ٸ  ٽ ¾߸ Ѵٴ ̴.  Ĵϻ
öε   Ͽ ̷  ǹϰ 뽺 
Ǯ̿ عǾ     ִ°   Ǿ.
̷   Ǯ̷κ  ؼ  ùٸ  װ
̰ų  ̰ų ̹  ȿ ϰ Ǿ. ֳϸ 
 ̵簣 ݵ   ʷϰԲ Ǿ ־, ƹ   
츮 ؼ ȸ 迡 ӹڽŰ   ̱ ̴. 
 ޴´ ص  󼼰 ü  ϴ ̴.  Ĵϻ
öε   ߰ ؼ  ƴ϶  ϰ  
ü ƴ  ʿϴٴ  ݰ  ̴. ⼭ 帶 縦
߽   ö غǰ Ǵ ̴. Ĵϻ忡 ϴ ̶
 󼼰踦  ϴ ϻ  ƴ϶, ֿ λ 
ƴ ź ̾.  Ĵϻ öε  ź  ƹԳ
Ժη  ʾҰ, °  Ư  Ʒ ɽ 
μ ߴ ̴. 'Ĵϻ'  " ɴ´"   μ,
 ڰ  ɾ ȭ Ͽ   ߴٴ  ־
̸̴.  Ĵϻ Ž ַ ȭ  Ǹ, 츮 
ȭ Ͽ Ĵϻ öε  ñ 縦 ߱ϴ ö 
  ٶ      ִ. ׸ ̷ ȭ ϴ
ڵ ٶ󹮰 Ӹ ƴ϶ ũƮƳ Ȥ   ŵ
ڵ ԵǾ ִٴ  ָ  ̴.
  Ĵϻ  Ⱓ ļ  پϰ  μ, 
Ĵϻ ̸    150  200 ̸ ִ. ׷ 
߿ 帶 ҼӵǾ ִ  ֿ Ĵϻ  13μ,
ñ   B.C 700κ A.D 200 ̿ ٰ Ǹ, 
 ȿ     帧 ߰ߵǰ  ϳ  ϰ  ϰ 
  ƴϴ. 켱 '긣ϵƶī Ĵϻ'  'î Ĵϻ' ǥǴ
ʱ Ĵϻ ߽ɻ ϱ .

  2 ʱ Ĵϻ ö
  Ĵϻ ñ  常 ƴ ̴. 常 
帶 翡 ̴   Ȥ      Ÿ
̾ 츮 ̹ Ҵ. Ĵϻ ͼ    ̻
Ͽ, ǿ  ǹ̴    ñ ü   ǹϴ
 θ  ִ. ̴    Ǵ ٽ صǸ, ̴
پ  Ŀ ִ   ̴.  ׷κ ԰, ׿Է
ٽ ǰ Ǵ  ٿ̸  ̴.

    ʿ   ѵ     ־.  κ   
ְڴ°?  ڰ ٰ ǰ ;  ߰   ߰  
ߴ.   ڰ ̵    ִ  ھƷμ   
    鳻  ̸  ״. Ұ   
  Ͼ ̰ ̵ ̰ ׵κ   ͵
 Ͽ ̸ ־   ʴ´. ׸ ΰ ͼ  
ҵ  ̼ κ     Ǿ.

  ޶ī ̷ ַ 纯 и پ   ̷ ϳ
 ü   ϰ , ̿ ÿ 󼼰 پ缺  
ҵ ȥ Ϸ  ̰ ִ. ̷  ߿ Ű Ŀ
Ͽ 踦 ϴ Ʈ, ڽ, Ÿ Ҽ ǰ Ǵ ̴.
޶ī     ư ַ 纯 ΰ   
ֿ ΰ    ûϰ ִ. 
   'ŸƼ Ĵϻ'  ¿  常κ Ǿ 
󼼰  ΰ縦 ߽ Ͽ ټ ܰ Ͽ ϰ ִ.
 常 ΰ翡 ־ ټ    ھƷ Ÿ ִٴ ̴.
     ̷  ,   ̷ ھ,   
Ȱ  ھ, ΰ ϰ ִ νȰ  ھ, ׸ 
  ܰμ 񿭷 ̷ ھƸ ϰ ִ.   񿭷  ھƶ
 ΰ    ϴ 常 ü ̴.
  Ĵϻ  ñ  常 常  󼼰 踦
 ν ϰ ִ.
    Ź̿ Ź̷κ  Ź, ݰ     ǵ,
Ұ Ҳɵ,    ׸, Ȥ DZ DZ⿡  Ҹ 
̴.   Ͻϰ ִ ٴ (1)  μ,  ˸ ٸ
  ,  Һϴ ̸ ٴ ȭϴ 󼼰μ   ̸
¿  ʴ´ٴ ̴.  ī ̷ Ÿ öп ϴ
ٿ  󼼰踦  츮   ȯ  ش Ĵϻ忡 
и Ÿ   Ͻδ ̹ ϰ ִٰ   ִ. Ư
'ŸŸ'  ı Ĵϻ 常 ΰ  ̽ٶ()μ
ľϸ      ȯ Ͽ Ÿ ٰ ϰ ִ.
׷ ٸ δ  󼼰谡 常κ Ǿ  ̰ų
Ȥ װ  ŭ  ȯ    常 ٺ
ٸ ʴٰ   ŷ  ٺ ߰ߵǰ ִ.   常
̱  常   Ŀ Ȥ  ӿ ϰ ֱ 
̴.  Ͽ Ĵϻ忡 踦 常   ,
 常̶  縦 ٰŷ ϵ ܼ  Ÿ ̴
Ϳ  ʴ´ٴ ,     ߰ߵǰ ִ ̴. ڴ ٳ
常 ̹ ߰ߵǴ ֹ߻   ̸, ڴ Ĵϻ
Ư ö ⿩   ִ. ڴ   ñ̰  
常 ϰ ϴ 󼼰 踦 ľغ  ̴.
  Ĵϻ ö  ߿  ٵ 常  ַ 纯
Ѿ  ñ 縦 ü ľߴٴ  ִ. ,  ñ
 常  ٸ ƴ ΰ  Ͽ Ĵϻ öε
Ž  ȯϿ ھ Ž   ̴.  ȯ 
 ַ 纯κ  ΰ ڱ  ȯ ǹϴ
μ Ĵϻ Ҹ  ̾. ȸδ  ȯ 
ǽ ϸ鼭  常   ϴٽ  ٶ󹮰
   ݹ߷μ ص  ִ. Ĵϻ忡 ٶ󹮰  ƴ 
öε ϰ ִٴ  ̷  ûϰ ִ ̴. ׵ 
ٶ󹮰޿  縦 Ű ϴ Ȱ ȸǸ ǰ ڱ ڽ 
ھƸ ãν  ñ   ϰ ϴ   ̴.
(Deussen Ư Ksatriya   Ĵϻ   ó
Ǿٰ Ѵ)
  Ĵϻ ΰ  ھƸ Ʈ̶ ҷ. 'Ʈ'̶  ״ 'ھ'
,    ΰ Һϴ ھƸ ϰ ִ° ϴ 
Ĵϻ öε ִ ɻ翴. 츮   Ͽ  纯
Ĵϻ忡
ã   ִ.   켱 ΰ ٰŷμ   ŷеǰ ִ  .
ֳϸ  ΰ ٸ   Ȱ  ϰ õ   
̱ ̴. ׷  ΰ     ٴ  ϰ ִ.
 δ   DZ,   ΰ  ھƷμ ŷеDZ⵵ Ѵ. ׷
   Ĵϻ 纯       ݰ ΰ
ھƶ   ü  ҿʹ ޸ װͺ  عٴڿ  ִ 
 ϰ Ǵµ ִ. ̷  ȭ 纯  ھ 4 ¿
 ̷п  Ÿ ִ. ù° 츮  ִ ¿ ھ̴. , 츮
 ܰ ˿ Ͽ Ȱϰ ִ ̴.  ¿ ھƴ 츮
 ϽõǸ ھư   ̴. °  ٴ ·μ, ̶
츮     츮 ,    ǽ 
Ȱϰ     ü  Ͽ ̴( ,  ) 
踦 Ƿ   ̴. ⼭  ھƴ ߰ߵ ʰ 
ھƿ ȥǰ ִ ̴. ° ھ ´ ̺   ·, ޵ 
  ̴. ⼭  ̳ ǽۿ뵵  ׿ شϴ 
 ȴ. , ְ  븳  ʿǰ پ缺 Ѽ 
ູϰ ȭ ̴. ׷ٰ ̰  ǽ ¸ ǹϴ 
ƴϴ. ̰ Ư ѵ ǽ ƴ  ĸ عٴڿ  
ִ ¶ Ѵ. 'î Ĵϻ' ޶ī    ¸ 
ھư ϰ  ü ã  · Ѵ. ġ    ̸
 ƴٴϴٰ ħ ڱ ڸ  ƿͼ  ִ ¿ ϰ
ִ. ׷ 'Ű Ĵϻ'  ı Ĵϻ忡  ư 4
¸  · ϰ ִ.  4° ھ ´  ·μ,
°   ¿    븳 ʿǸ,    Ȱ
ģ ̴.  ¾߸ ھư ƹ ؾ ϰ 巯  
 ̴. ھư Ư   ǽμ   ϴ ̴.
 ´  μ ־ ʰ 䰡   Ʒ Ͽ ־
ź ü ̴. Ĵϻ ö Ű߿ ϸ ھƴ ΰ 
ν  Ȱ Ŀ ׽ װ Ѻ ΰ   üμ
 츮 ν    ٰ Ѵ. ֳϸ  ü ν̿, ٸ 
ν üμ  ü  ν     ̴.   Ͽ
ڸ ιۿ ˷   ̴.  ̳ ǵ Ұϴ. 
 , ' ƴϰ  ƴϴ' ιۿ ̾߱  
  ļ ϰ ִ.
   ھƴ  ̳  볳 ʴ,  ΰ  ھ̴.
޶ī  Ƶ Ÿ    ν ġ ִ. 
 κ ä ϳ ̵,     
ϳ ٴ幰 ̷, Ʈ ƹ   ٴ ̴. Ӹ
ƴ϶  Ʈ ٸ ƴ 常μ ΰӸ ƴ϶   
 ̷ ̴. ұ     κ  ұ  ֵ
Ʈ ϴ  Ϳ ϴ  ̶ ̴. ΰ  
 ϳ ñ 翡 ϰ  常  Ʈ̿, Ʈ
ΰ ϴ 常 ̴. ٷ  Ͽ  ݴ 
Ĵϻ忡 ϴ ְ  ̴. 'װ װ̴' Ȥ ' ̴'
 Ĵϻ      ִ ̴. ٳ 帶
ô뿡 ־ ̹ ΰ ҿַ  ذ  ߰ߵ, Ĵϻ忡 ͼ
   ö ȭǾ  簡 ٸ ƴ ҿַμ ΰ
 ľǵǴ ̴. 常 ̷ ΰ ־ ü ľǵ ,
常  Һϴ , , 񿭷μ ľǵǰ Ǿ, ÿ
ΰ  ϰ    Ͻõ ̴.
  ڱⰡ  常̶  ݴ    η򿡼 عȴ.
ֳϸ ڱڽ ̿ܿ  ϰų η ٸ ƹ   ʱ
̴.  ̷   κ ο Ŀ ٽ ȯϴ
  常  üμ ̰    ȴ. ׷   
    ֵǾ ȵȴ.  Ż̶ ᱹ  ̹
ڽſ  ùٸ  Ͽ ־ ̳ ٸ ٴ Ż  츮
̹ Ĵϻ忡 ãƺ  ִ. ׷ ٸ δ  '׺'
帶    Ż Ŀ ŵ   常
̸  ϱ⵵ Ѵ.

  3 ı Ĵϻ ö
  ̻󿡼 츮 ʱ Ĵϻ ֿ  뷫 캸Ҵ.  'īŸ
Ĵϻ', 'ŸŸ Ĵϻ'   ֱ Ĵϻ  
.(߱⿡ ϴ Ĵϻ   ܿ ̻, ī  ִ. Mundaka
Upanisad  Atharva Veda  ҼӵǾ ְ    Yajur Veda  ִ)
̵ ߱ Ĵϻ ü B C 500⿡ B C 200 ̿  μ,
Ļ    깮  ַ     Ư¡̴.   ǿ ־ 
'긣ϵƶ߳ī'   Ϳ ϸ ξ ª   ϴٴ
Ư ִ. δ ʱ Ĵϻ忡   ߰ߵǰ ִ 帶
 ַ 纯  پ ִ. 'īŸ Ĵϻ' ־ ö
Ӱ ߿  Ű߳ 䰡 ö ٿ   ִٴ ̴.
'ī Ĵϻ' Ʈ  ο ϰ ִ. 츮  ̰,
츮    ,  ,  , ׸ 
  ޸ 濡 ǰ ִ. ִ ڴ ׽  ߸ ϰ,
   Ƽ  Ͽ ٽô ȸ 迡 ¾ ,
 ڴ  ݴ   ̲ ȸ 迡 ϰ ȴٴ ̴.
⼭ 'Ѵ'  䰡   μ Ż  õ  ٽ
Ǵ ̴. ׸ ̷ õ  ÿ ̸ ޹ħִ ̻
鿡  纯 'īŸ Ĵϻ' ǰ ִ.  ü 
    ؼϿ 䰡  Ʒ Ͽ   翡
ϵ ̷ ޹ħ ϴ ̴. , ٴ  , 
躸ٴ DZ, DZٺٴ , ٴ , ƺٴ  ׸
ٴ     ̾߱ǰ ִ ̴. ̷  ߿
Ű öп ϳ    ̷ ǰ Ǵ μ,  
Ŀ Ű Ѵ.
   ⼭ Ѱ ޵Ǿ   ߱ Ĵϻ忡  Ű 
̿  Ÿ  ʴٴ ̴.   , ׷ װͰ
 ϼ ִ  μ,  Ȥ 常 صǰ ִ
̴. ٽ ϸ ŷ ̿  Ĵϻ忡 ãƺ ƴٴ ̴.
  ߱ Ĵϻ  ϳ ߿  'ŸŸ Ĵϻ'̴.
'īŸ Ĵϻ'   , B C 2~ 3  ȴ. 
Ĵϻ忡 䰡 õ Ͽ 'īŸ Ĵϻ'ٵ   
߰ߵȴ. ̸׸ 䰡 ϴ ,  ڼ, ȣ , 䰡 ǽ 
 ڿ ɷ  ϰ ִ. Ӹ ƴ϶ 䰡 ñ ǥ  νĿ
  ν  ȥ  ӹκ عŲٰ Ѵ. 
  ϴ ڷμ,  âϰ  ȿ ϸ ڸ 
ٽ ȸϴ ̴. 츮  ѿ  Ű    ׸
žϴ ڴ    ִٰ Ѵ.
   ʱ Ĵϻ忡 常 ü ΰ ̻  صǰ
 ⼭ и  踦 ϴ ΰݽ ֵǰ ִ. Ư ׸
   ϳ  θ    ߿  Ű
ϽõǴ ̶   ʿ䰡 ִ. ̷ 'ŸŸ' 
Ͻ  ž    3~ 4   žӿ
ϱ   Ű 񽴴 迡    ֵǸ ̷
 뼭 'ϹٶŸ' ͼ   ڼ 巯 Ǵ ̴.
  'ŸŸ Ĵϻ'      ָ   Ű
 迡 ־  ȯ, 踦 ׿ Ͽ ۵ ȯ
ϰ   ȥ  ȯ Ȧ ٵ ִ  ϰ ִ.
߿ Ÿ öп ־ ٽ  ϳ ''  ⿡ μ
иϰ Ÿ  Ӹ ƴ϶, Ű  ȥ  ﰢ ļ
ŷ öü ٺ ̷  ̴.
  ߱ Ĵϻ ΰ 常 ؿ Ҿ   ָ  'īŸ'
'ī Ĵϻ' Ÿ ִ Ʈ  ̴.  Ʈ 
ħ̳  ɷ¿ Ͽ ˷   μ ڱⰡ  ڿԸ
θ 巯ٰ ϴ ̴.
  ݱ 'īŸ' 'Ÿٺ'   ߱ Ĵϻ  Ư¡
캸ҰŴϿ ̵麸ٵ  ʰ  ϱ ı Ĵϻ鵵 ִ. '󽴳',
'Ʈ', 'α'  Ĵϻ ̿ ϸ 뷫 B C 200 A D 200
̿   ȴ. ⼭ 'Ʈ Ĵϻ'  
ϱ Ѵ.
  'Ʈ Ĵϻ' ü 'īŸ Ĵϻ'  Ÿ ִ Ű ö
  иϰ  ߴ޵Ǿ ִ.   Ű Ŀ ϴ
ξ  Ȯ Ǿ κ  Ҿƿ Ȯ ǰ ,
ȸ üμ  䵵 ߰ߵȴ.   ϰ ִ (sattva,
rajas, tamas) ̷е ߰ߵǸ, 䰡 ö ٺ Ǵ 䰡  
   6ܰ谡 ̹ ޵Ǿ ִ.
  ̻󿡼  ı Ĵϻ Ͽ 츮 и   ִ 
Űö Ƹ ü     縦  ö 
̴. װ Ż μ õ Ұ  ұ  Ʒ ̿ 
 Ż  ̷ Ȯϰ  ʿ並  ٶ 󰡵 å
ƴϾ ȴ.



     4 ٶ󹮰 ö 

  1. 

  ε Ϻηκ ͼ δ  ̿ ڸ  ߴ
ƹٶ  ֵϿ ߴ Ƹ ٹȭ
 ȮǾ  ߴ.  ñ⿡ ö⹮ȭ  ²
и뿴  Ǿ  ȮǾ Ȱ  
 ߷̵    ߽  ùȭ Ǽǰ
Ǿ.
  ̿ Ҿ  ̶  踦   Դ
ٶ󹮱  ڿ 鸮ԵǾ. Ƹ
  ֹΰ  ȥյ  Ǿ  ٶ󹮱
ȭ   ȭǰ  ̴. ̷ Ȳ
Ͼ  ٶ ȸ Ư̳   
 ʴ ұ ̳  ο 
̾.
  ̽ñ  ε ġε ū ȭ ޴ .
   ٳ ڻ  
ֱ鿡 Ͽ  Ͽ ̿ ϴ
̿ ϴ ġ ȸ ȥ Ҿ ؽ ñ⿴.
Ӹ ƴ϶ ùȭ ߴ޿    踦
 ε δ  ־  
  ȸ °ϸ ٸ δ λ
԰ ǹ    DZ⵵  ̴.
ұ ̳ ٵ ٷ ̷ ûε
ο  屸 Ͽ ȸ   
 ̴.
  ұ ̳  ̷ ݺϴ ô뿡 ߻ ǥ
̾. ׷ 츮 ׹ۿ    ־ 
ұ ̳ 鿡 ã   ִ.̵  
ٶ󹮵 ޸ 繮̶ ο  ڵ ߽
Ǿ. 繮̶ ҿ ֹ ʰ ̶̳ ÿ ϸ鼭
ɽĿ  踦 ϸ鼭   ϴ Ⱑڵ̾.
׵  ڿ ׵   õϴ 鿡 Ͽ
° Ȱü ǰ Ǿ. ̵ ü ȸ  ź
     ִ    ̾.
  ұ ̳ ϰ ̵    
  ұ  Ͽ 츮 ׵ Ӱ â ö
    ִ. ұ   ܵ Ͽ Ÿ
ÿ  ħ ߳    ǰ
־ ϰ ִ.  ߿ ̳ ߿  ޸Ͽ
ϱ ϰ  ټ     Ұϱ Ѵ.

   2. ܵ

  ȸ  ҽ° ϳ 繮(1) ϸ ù°,
Ǫ īĶ  ,,,  ൿ 
ϰų  ϵ ĵ  ƴϸ   
ʴ´ٴ  Ģ ϴ  ߴٰ Ѵ.
  Į  ڴ ΰ  ׸ ΰ ¿ ƹ ̳ 
 ΰ   ߻  ´   ׵   ׸ ׵ õ

Ͽ DZ  ڽ   ƹ ҿ ٴ  Ȥ 
ߴ. ״  ڷμ  ΰ ڽ  ̷ Ͽ ƹ å
 
ʿ䰡 ٴ ̴. ״ ȸ   ο ڳ  ڸ ϰ
    Ⱓ   迡    ſ 
̸ ƹ ̰Ϳ  ְų ٲ  ٴ ̴. Ż̶  ־ Ⱓ
  ϰ ׶ μ     ̴. ״  õ 

踦 ϴ ö ̳ ÿ  ̷ ҵ ̿ܿ ΰ Ȳ Ͽ 

ƹ ε  ʱ  η̱⵵  ̴. ī   

ڵ Ķ θ.   س  ̳ Ͽ , ̳

 ϰŸ ŸDzٿ Ͻ     ϵ ־. Ĵ   

    ִ.(2)
  ° ܵμ Ÿ ɻį߶ ڴ   . ׿ ϸ
ΰ , , , ٶ κ  ڳ  ڳ   ü
ĸǰ ƹ͵   ٴ ܸ ߴ. ״  ν 
õ̸  Ģ ϴ () ϰ  踦 ߴ.
  ׹°,  ī߳   , , ,  ٶ, , ſ,  Һϰ 

ϰ ҷ Ǿ ,  ü Ǵ  ٰ ϴ ̸
ΰ  ߴ. ׿ ϸ     Į  Ӹ ѷ 

 ƹ   Ѿư ڰ   Į ϰ  ҵ ŭ ̷ ħ
Ͽ
 Ϳ  ʴ´ٴ ̴.   ö ΰ  ϴ
 ̴.
  ټ° ھߺƼDzŸ ڴ    Ͽ ν ȸǷ ߴ. 

̶  ϴ°  ״ ׷ٰ  ׷ٰ, ׷  ͵ ƴ϶
,
׷   ͵ ƴ϶ Ѵٴ ̴.   ջ缺 
Ÿ   縮DzŸ 񰥶󳪵 ó  ڿٰ Ѵ.
  ̻ 5 ̷е鿡 츮 Ư ؾ   ׵ ü ؼ 

ΰ  Ĵϻ忡 ϴ ΰ    ھ  Ʈ̳  

 常    ʾҴٴ ̴.   迡 ؼ
ȸ̰   ġ  Ģ ϰ Ǵ  Ÿ ִٴ
̴. 
  ߿ 츮 ϰ Ÿ   δ ̷   ϸ鼭 
ٸ 
δ  ȸdz ̻ ܸа  п  ʴ  ߵ

 ǥ ħ̾. ̷      ļ  ö

üȭϿ  İ ٸ ƴ ī ̴.

    3. íī ö
  íī   ǹ̴ иġ  ư íī εöл翡 а
ȸ  Ǹ ǥϴ ķ ˷ , ұ ̳   ٸ
  񳭰   Ǿ Դ.(3)   õϰ  ظ
 ö̶ Ͽ Ķ Ҹ.
    ϴ ٴ   ü     ʰ ڵ 
Ͽ ˷   ݵ  缺  ִٰ  쳪, ü
  ö   εöл簡 ϰ ִ.(4)
  #1 , , , ٶ  ϴ ҵ̴.
  #2      ҵ    տ  
.
  #3 ǽ̶ κ  ̴. ġ ȿ κ  ϴ  

Ͱ .
  #4 ȥ̶ ǽ ִ   ʴ´.
  #5  λ  ̴.
  #6  ع̴.
  íī νķп ־   Ÿ ν ̶ Ͽ
εö ĵ κ ϴ ߷ Ÿ缺 Ѵ. ߷̶  

Ͽ ˷ Ϳ  𸣴  ˷ õμ,  ű⿡ ȮǼ ٰ Ѵ. 
 
߷     κ ߸Ǿ   Ṯذ
 ϰ ִ ̴.   ,   (Ⱑ    
)
(Ȥ    ״´) Ϲ       ִ°̴. íī 
ϸ
  Ÿ缺 츮     Ÿϴٰ Ѵ. ׷ ƹ

   踦  쿡     ̴. ٸ    

ͳ ߸  п  ִٴ ̴.  ٽ   ʿ

 ֿ谡(5) Ǿ ϴ ε ͳ ߸ ̷ 踦 Ȯų 
ٴ ̴. Ұ   ΰ踦 ϴ ͵ ҿ. ֳϸ ٷ 
ΰ踦 ƴ ͵ ͳ ߸̸   ߸ ü  ǰ ֱ ̴. ׷

ؼ Ÿ  Ͽ    踦   ִ ͵ ƴϴ. Ÿ  Ÿ
缺
ü ߸ Ͽ ˷ ̴. ̻  íī ö ߷п  ȸǴ
öл翡  ˷  ͳ ߸ ΰ  ȸǷа ſ  ̴.
  íī  ִ   ν Ÿ  ޾Ƶ ʴ´.
ֳϸ 켱 츮      װ ϴ° . ׷ڸ ڿ 

 ̸,   ߷ Ÿ缺 ̹ εǾ  ̴. ٸ ,   

  쿡 װ   Ͽ Ÿϴٰ Ѵ.   

  ̷ ؿ θ  .
  íī ̻ ̿  νķ 翬 ̴. Ư  Ĵ  
  ʴ  縦  Ѵ.  , ȥ , ׸  
Ģ,
̳      ʴ´. íī ϱ⸦ ̷ ͵ 

  ӿ ڱ   ߱Ϸ ǵ   ̷е̶ Ѵ. 

íī ̷  ´    ϰ . λ ְ 
ǥ
 󿡼 ü   ּ ̸  ִ    ִٰ Ѵ.  ̻ 
ٸ
 Ģ  ,  󿡼   غϷ Ż ̻ Ұ

̶ Ѵ. 츮       ݵ  ̸, ׷ٰ
װ η   Ǿ 踦 ã   ̴.  
˸̸  Ͱ  ٴ ̴.  ΰ ߱ؾ     ǥ,  , 
,
ǹ, Ż  íī ù°  Ѵ. δ  
Ű  ̹Ƿ  ְ ġ Ѵ.
  íī ö Ե      μ,  ε 

  ִ      ִ. ư  ε öĵ    

ظ Ϸ      ִ ̴.   ذῡ ־ ʹ

ϰ и߱ ̴.   ķμ   ʾ íī ٸ 

ö  ׽ ڱ Դٴ  ־ ε  Ư ⿩ ؾ 
̴.   ǹ̿  εö  íī   󸶳 

ذϰ ߴ°  Ȱ ޷ȴٰ ص  ƴ ̴.

    4.  ̳ 
  Ÿ ô뿡 ̳ â ٸٸ ־. ״ ε Ϻ ̼
αٿ B.C 549⿡    ¾. ״ 30 ⰡϿ   2
Ⱓ
 ,    Ź ڷμ 12Ⱓ   Ȱ Ͽ.
   㿡      Ͽ.  ķδ Ϻ,  

, Ȥ ,    Īȣ    ϸ Ȱ ϴ 72 

Ͽ Ʈ αٿ  ƴ.  ü Ÿ ſ     ö

ߴٴ  ū ̸ δ.
  ̳ 뿡   , Ϻ   ־  (
 ڶ  ) İڷμ ״ 24 شѴ. ̵ Ϻ 
     ֵȴ.  23  ĸٴ 뷫  8 
濡
־  ι  ֵǸ, ״ 4    ƴٰ Ѵ.  
,
, ,  ߴٰ Ѵ.  Ϻ ű⿡  ϴ 5° Ģ 

 ̶ ̳ ٺ  ϰ  ̴.
  Ϻ װ   ̹   Ͽ,  ϸ װ  

   п ŵϿ.  ߿ Ư Ŀ  п ϴ.
± 4  îŸ   Ϸμ, 濡   6 

ٵĴ Ϻ °   κ ĭ dz ٰ Ѵ. 
Ŀ
ƿ   濡 Ͼ  ִ ٵ θӸ  ·  

  Ӹ ƴ϶ ȰԹ  ־ Ÿ ٰ Ѵ. ,  ʵ  
ġ
Ȱ ߴٴ ̴. ̷κ   ǵ  ġ ʴ Ŀ   Դ
ķ  пǰ Ǿٰ Ѵ.(6) ư ij   ٵ 
δ
ٸٸκ       ϵǰ Ǿٰ Ѵ.
ٵİ     ٵ ŻǪƮ󿡼 ū   

12ι ϰ ĵ鿡 Ͽ ޾Ƶ鿩ٰ Ѵ. ׷ Ĵ 
Ǿٰ Ͽ ׵ ΰ   ü  ϰ Ǿ. Ĵ 

5~6⿡ ߶񿡼 ٽ Ͽ ׵   ϰ ȭϿ. 
̳  ݸ     Ϻ   1000
Ŀ ǾǷ  Ϻ ħ Ѵٰ  ƴ. ׷ ļ
üȭ ̳  ϸ 뷫    ̳ ħ 

 ִ.(7)
  Ÿ   Ϻ  ִ ɻ 뽺 ȸ κ ع
Ǵ
̾. ׷ Ϻ  ȸ 迡  ΰ  Ȳ Ÿʹ ޸ ߴ. 
,
״ 迡    Ƶ  ׵ ϰ ִ ü  ũ

 Ѱ ũ⸦   Ѵٰ Ѵ. ̳  ϸ ̳  

͵鵵  ִ μ  ȿ Ƹ ϰ ִٰ Ѵ. ƴ 츮  

ۿ ü̸  ൿ ü̱⵵ ϴ.  ƴ δ   ,  , 
,
,    , ü, , ǽ  Ͽ ̷ ǰ
 ְ
ΰ ̸ Ÿٰ Ѵ. Ϻ  ƿ ޶ٴ  ̼ 
,    ư   ǰ   ϰ ȴٰ Ѵ.  

ΰ  ٸ   Ǹ,   ޾  ٸ ȯϿ ٽ ¾

 ȴٰ Ѵ. ׸    Ͽ      

Ǹ, ٸ δ ο  Ʒ Եǰ ȴ. ̷ Ե   

Ѽ װ ӹ   Ź , , , , ̶ μ ̵
ī(  )  Ѵ. ٽ ϸ, ư   ڱ ޾  

Ǹ     · ƿ 鷯ٰ ȴٴ ̴.  ׷ ƴ 

    ̼  Ҿ ȸ Ѵ. ׷ ̿  ·κ
Ż  Ͽ Ѱ?  ư κ ο߸ Ѵ. ׷ 

켱 ̻ ο     ؾ Ѵ.  δ  
 Ȱ  Ͽ    ٿ Ѵ.  ̹  ִ 

Ҹؾ Ѵ. ̰ Ͽ   ߿  ̴. ǽ ϴ  
Ͽ
̹ ׿ ִ  ڿ  Ҹ꺸ٵ   ҸǾ ٰ ϱ ̴. 

κ ȭǸ ٽô ȯϴ  , ̳ ְ   
 õϿ ű⼭ ϰ ູ   Ѵ. ̰  Ż 
̴.

    5. úұ
  úұ ö    ִ ڷμ  Ϻϰ Ͽ   ȸ
 º , ,   ̴.  ߿ Ÿ   ϴ  

߿ ̴.(8) Ÿ    ܰ踦  ü ó  ¸ 

  B. C. 1 ̶ .     ġ  ó ڽ
ߴٰ   ļ   , ö   ȥԵǾ ϰ 

̴. ݿ ͼ  Ÿ ڽ ħ Ȯϰ ٴ   Ұ
ٰ
ص  ƴϴ. ׷   Ͽ    ǥ ŵǾ
ǰ ִ  츮 ü Ÿ ڽſ    ϴ. 

 缺ü, , , , ü   μ, 츮 ̵ ߽

Ͽ úұ  뷫 ľ   ̴.
  Ÿ  Ͽ ִ  ׸ Ű ձ ڷμ ¾ٰ Ѵ. 

Ϲ ġ ߼  Ű߿ձ α 뱹 ڻ󱹿 Ͽ й 
ٰ
ᱹ յǾ ۿ    ־. Ÿ  Ÿ  ̸
˴Ÿ. Ÿ    Ŀ  Īȣ̴. ׸Ͽ ״ Ÿ
Ÿ Ȥ ,  Ű ڶ Ҹ.
  ״ 29   繮ó ⰡϿ ɽĿ ϸ鼭   ߴ. ״
ַ ٱ 6Ⱓ̳ ϸ鼭    ڵ    

õ   ߴ.  ״ ߶  ִ   ؿ 
ϴٰ  ޾ Ÿ,   ڰ Ǿٰ Ѵ. ̰   35  ̾
.
 ̷   ״    ߴ  ټ񱸵鿡  ϱ Ͽ  
ִ
߿   μ ֿ   Ͽ Ѵٴ ߵ  缺ü
 ƴ. ̰   ̴.
  Ÿ   45⿡ ļ ȭȰ ̸  ڸ . ״  
κ ٱ ڻ󱹿  , ٽƼ, ڱ׸, ̼  
õ
Ȱ Ҵ. ״ ó   80 ϱ  ƴ.   

κ ڼ Ͽ ְ ִ  ݿݰ濡 ϸ ״ ڱⰡ    װ 
ģ
, ׸ ڴ ڱ θ   Ǹߴ. ״   
 ϰ Ǿ Ƿ   ޼϶  ٰ Ѵ.
  Ÿ   ʷ ߿  ߴٰ ϴ 缺 ù°  λ 뿡 

. , , , 簡  ̸, Ⱦϴ ڿ  ϴ ڿ  

̸, ϴ    Ե ̴. Ÿ  ư ΰ縦 ϰ ִ 
, ,
,  ̶ ,  ټ  ׷  ü ̶ Ѵ. Ÿ ϸ
ΰ̶ ̶  ҵ,  6   ˿ 
, ̶   ؼ   , ̶  Ű  

ҵ, ׸ ̶  鿡 Ͽ ־ ǽĵ ѵ   
ʴ´ٴ ̴.      ׵ õ ״ ӹ   

ϴ  ̱ ̸,    Ͽ  ͵  ʴ  
ƶ
θ  ٰ Ѵ.
  Ĵϻ öп ϴ Ʈ̶  θ ھ  Һϰ  

Ǵ ̾. Ÿ ̷   ˰ ־ ó ̳,  ΰ Ĵϻ

öε ٺ ٸ ̾. ,   ͵ ׷   Ǵ 

 ΰԴ  ȭ̿ܿ , Ȥ   ϴ  Һ ھư
ִٰ   ٴ ̴. ΰ̶  ׽ ϰ մ   üμ 

  ̶ ̴.  ΰ Ӹ ƴ϶ 迡 ϴ  繰

̶ θ  ̻ ȯ     ҵ μ,   

 ϰ ,   ͵ ֺҺ  ƴ϶ ̴. ٽ ϸ 
 
  ۿϰ  ̸ ΰ  ̷   
μ
 Ŀ  Һϴ ü   ٴ ϳ   Ÿ 
ģ
̴.  , ,      ̴.
  Ÿ ι°  ̷    Ͼ Ǵ  ִٴ ü̴.  

¾ ʷϴ ̶ֿ  ֱ   ִٴ ̴. ̰ Ÿ ߰

ſ ߿ μ    ⺻  ϰ ִ. ù°, μ ΰ
翡
 ִٴ ̴. ̶ ƹ  ε  쿬  ƴ϶ ̴. Ÿ

ηڰ ƴϾ. °,     ̹Ƿ  ̸   

̴.   ŵǸ  ŵDZ ̴.  μ ΰ 

       ƴ϶ ̴. Ÿ  ź ̴. 
̿
 쿬а  źϴ Ÿ   ⼳  Ÿ ִ. ⼳
Ϲ  A  B ְ, A  B  A  B  A
ϸ B Ѵٴ  ̴. Ÿ    μ ΰ  ϴ 

 ̴. ̰ װ õ ⼳ ̴. 缺ü Ÿ  

ܼ ̶ֿ    ٸ     12 ҵ 

翡 ϴ ΰ縦  ڼ ϰ ִ.
   ->  ->  ->  ->  ->  ->  ->  ->  ->  ->  -> 
    ⼳ \(, , ̷) ģ ΰ  ϴ 

ؼǾ Դ.     ¾  ż, κ  ,
׸    Ųٰ ϴ ̴. Ÿ ̷ ⼳  
 ΰ    Ű ִ ̵   쿬 ϰ  

ƴ϶, 츮 ľ  ִ   ʿ Ģ  Ģ  ȣ
ӿ Ѵٴ ̴.   ̷ ǻϰ ֱ   ͵ ڼ

 ϰ , , ׸ Ͻ ̶ ̴. ̷ 
ǻϿ ϰ ֱ    ͵ ñ     . 
Ÿ
⼳ Ĵϻ öó ΰ   ñ Ͽ Ǵ 縦 

ʴ ̴.     ȣۿ뿡  길 ϴ ̴.  ݵ

κ ȸ   ʿ ,  ۵ǵ    

 Ǯ Ǵ ̴.  ü  ߻ ̱ ̴. ׷
  ȯ     װ  ٺ ̱ ̸ װ

ؾ߸ ٸ ͵鵵  ŵ  ֱ ̴.
  ⼳ ־  Ѱ 츮 ؾ   Ÿ    ̷
  Ͽ  Һ ھư  ؼ   ϰ ִ 
ƴ϶ ̴. ٸ  ϴ  μ ΰ  
̴. ׸ ſ , 翡  ̷  ٽ ¾ ־  

踦  ͵ ƴϸ ٸ  ͵ ƴ϶ Ѵ.     (̶) 

¿ ٸ  Űܰ  Ű   Ұ  ʰ ٸ ʴ ̴.
ٰ ϸ Ƽ ݵǴ  ַп , ٸٰ ϸ ΰ Ӽ 
ϱ
  ΰ å ϴ ܸп  ȴٰ Ͽ Ÿ   ظ
ôϰ ڱ  ߵ   ̴.  Ĵϻ ΰ̳
 ΰ, Ǵ   ̳ 쿬    ôϰ 
Ÿ
п ԰ ΰ  ̴. ׷  Ÿ  ߽Ͽ ϱ⸦
⸦  ڴ  ,   ڴ ⸦ ٰ  ̴.
    ⼳     Ļ ־   ΰ
Ӽ  ִ  ̶ ̴. ׷  ̶ ͵  

Ǹ ׽ ϰ ִ ϳ 帧 ̸  Һ ȥ̳ ھƴ ƴ
̴. 帧̶ Ͽ  ڱ⵿ϼ  ǵǴ  ƴϸ, ϴ  

 Ӽ ϼ ϴ ̴. ׸    ־ Ȥ 
 Ѿ   Ѵ.
  缺 °     ° ִٴ  ̴.   ϴٴ 
.
ļ   ϸ ݿ      ״  ä

ϴ ݰ  ü   Ŀ ־  ִ.  

شϴ μ, 缺 ƶ üϴ  ູ ȭ ǹϴ ̴. 

 ƶ  Ŀ  Ǵ°̴.  ΰԴ Ҹ ھư µ ƶ

 · ϴ ΰ? ü  ݿ ° ϴ   ̴.
  Ͽ ̹ Ÿ ú  Ȥ  ־ 츮  Ͽ
  ִ.   Ÿ ϱ⸦ ź  14 ϳ.(9)  
Ÿ   Ͽ ϱ⸦ ȴ° ϴ Ϳ  ؼ̴. Ÿ   
ؼ
 ظ ̰ ִ.    Ÿ ̷  纯 μ, ڱ 

 ˾Ƽ  Ϸ       ʿ䰡 ٰ ϴ

ϸ,   ܻ ̰߿  ʱ ؼ   ʾҴٰ . ׷ 
ϸ
 ٸ  Ż  ,  ̶  ΰ δ   
ǥ     ȸѴٰ ϴ  Ͻϱ⵵ Ѵ.    

Ѵ Ȥ  ʴ´ٶ    ִ 谡 ƴ϶ ̴. ݿ
 ƶ̶ ġ ᰡ Ͽ  Ұ Ƽ  ϱⰡ ƴٴ ̴.
   ھư ־ ݿ   ƴ϶ ̶   

ƶѿ ־    ̴. ׹°   Ÿ ݿ ̸  
. 
, , , , ,  , ,  ̴.  8   
зϿ
(, , ), (, ,  ), (, )    ִ. 
ұ
ñ   ۾Ƴ  ̸, ó ħ κ  
  ģ ̴. ׷   ߿  ߿    

ݴ ̴. ֳϸ ٵ  ŵǾ  ȯ  ΰ

ٺ ȭ Ͼ ̴.
  (2) A. L. Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas: a vanished Indian Religion
(London, 1951) .
  (3) ϼ ϸ íī   ö ģ  ö ̸̶ ϰ, 

ؿ ϸ ڵ (԰, ƽð,   Դ´ٶ 翡 ) ö
ġǷ ׵鿡 ־ ̸̶ Ѵ.  ۿ ٸ ص鵵 .
  (4) ұ ̳   ϰ  öп Ͽ   ֿڷ

 ִ: 8 ̳  Haribhadra Suri  ö : 14 
Ÿ
ö ٹ öа : 7  ö ߶ Ÿ 糭 .
  (5) ߿ ľö Ұ  .
  (6)   ϸ  п A. D. 1⸻濡 μ ȭ  ֵ
.
  ̴ ǻ  . ׸  µ鵵 ߿  տ

 Ծ.
  (7)      ü  Frouwallner    .   Geschichte  der  indischen 
Philosophie,
 Vol. 1 
  (8) ȸ    ټ     ִ. , ѿ , Ͼ
,
߾, .
  (9) 14 :  ()ΰ  ΰ, ̱⵵ ϰ ̱⵵ Ѱ,  

ƴѰ,  ()ΰ ΰ, ̱⵵ ϰ ̱⵵ Ѱ,  
ƴѰ,  Ŀ ϴ°,  ʴ°,    ʴ
ΰ, ξƴ ü ,   ΰ ̾.




       5 ҽºĺұö 
  
  
  1. ĺұ 
  Ÿ  鿡 Ͽ  ϰ ִ ҽ° "ݿݰ" 
  , Ÿ   յΰ Ƴٿ   ߴٰ Ѵ.
  
  Ƴٿ,     ' ħ . 츮Դ 
̻   Ŵ' Ҵ 𸥴. ׷, Ƴٿ,  ׷
ؼ ȵȴ.  鿡  ְ     Ŀ
  ƶ.(1)
  
  ׷  Ÿ      Ͽ  ڵ 
 ٸ ؼ µ ܳ  ̴. Ÿ ÿ  ħ
Ͽ  DZɰ  Ͼ    ΰݰ ī
Ͽ  ϰ ȭ   ־. ׷ װ   ұ
׿    ڵ       
     ʾҴ.  ұ   忡  Ÿ
ħ Ͽ  ٸ  ϰ Ǿ, ڿ  п Ұϰ
Ǿ ̴.  ڵ   ذϷ  ȸǸ
 ᱹ  пǰ  ̴.
   ó  ܺп Ÿ ħ  Ű 
ǥϴ  ε ߽  ºο,  ´ 
־ ༺ ϴ  ߺο п̾.  п ñ
Ϸ ұ뿡 ϸ Ҹ  100 Ŀ  'ʻ' ѷ
ؼ Ͽ ̼   2 ٰ ϸ,(2) Ϲұ
뿡  Ƽī ġ  ϵٶ   '' ,
ƶ  ϽŰ ټ  ׸ â   Ͽ
пǾٰ Ѵ.(3) ư Ҹ  100 Ƽī ̿ ұܳ
п 븳 ־  иϸ  ̰ ϰ Ͽ Ģ
  ȭ ˱ϱ ̸ ̴.
  ̷  п Ƹ  ұ  Ծ ұ Կ 
 еǾ ޱ ߺο º ٺ̺θ ߽ Ͽ 18
Ȥ 20 İ Ļϰ  ̴.(4) Ϸ '' 
 18 ĸ ϰ ִ.

  ǥ [ߺο 찡, ϼ, ׸ ٻΰ ְ ٽ 찡ο ٹΰ
ִ. ºο ȭο ںΰ ְ ٽ ȭο ü,
, , ο ΰ ְ ںο , ,
и ׸ ΰ ִ.
   ü  ϰ ִ  '̺'  
20  п ϰ ִ.
  ߺο ϼ, ⼼, , ٹ, , ٻ, ֺ,
׸ ϻֺΰ ְ, ºδ ũ üο (º)
  üδ ٽ ں, ȭ,  ׸ 淮η
Ǿ ִ. ںδ , ,  ׸ иֺη Ǿ ִ.]

  ̵ ĵ  ̸   ִ ͵   ־
εöл翡 ̷  м   ˷  Ұ 
̴. Ư ߺ     ϵǾ º μ
 Ǿ ְų Ȥ  ׵    ִ ĵ
ַ Ϸ  º, ü, 淮, ں ̴.
  ̵ ĵ κ ڱ  ԰Ͽ  , , 
  ߰ ־ٰ ,     Ϻϰ
 ִ  ȸ  Ϸ ºΰ  
ѿǾ ǰ ִ ü  ̴.
    Ÿ   ̰  Ÿ  ·Ȱ
Թ  μ,     DZ ߴ.
׷  ̺ٵ ξ Ŀ ͼ ãƺ  ִ μ,  Ÿ
ħ ϱ ϰ ϱ Ͽ , ó, , ĥ 
   Ǿ  ̴. ̷   ҷ
װ͸ Ͽ ϴ  ־  츮   ִ.(5)
̷   İ 븳 ϰ ʿ   ε巯
 Ĵ ڱ ö 忡    ϰ 
̴. ׸Ͽ Ϸ ߽  ºο '', 'к', '',
'νü', '', '', '' 7 忡  Ǿ. Ϸ
뿡    Ƽī  ģ ڱ 忡 񰥸Dz
» Ͽ  ·    Ÿ   
Ѵ. ̿ 񰥸Dzٴ Ÿ  к̶ Ͽ ´ܳ 
̴ ϰ  ȸǸ   ű⼭ '' ߴٰ Ѵ.(6)
  º ö  Ͽ .
  
  2. º ö
  ºδ  ö  к̶ θ. ⼭ 'к'̶
 ϴ  Ÿ 繰 Կ м ٴ ̴. 츮
̹ Ÿ ΰ縦    յ ̶ м  
ߴ. ºδ Ÿ ̷ м  ϰ ٰ
Ѵ. ׸Ͽ ºδ 󼼰踦 ̶ Ҹ  ҵ
  .  ҵ   Ͽ Ͽٰ 
ۿ ϸ .   ۿ ϰ ִ ͵鸸 ϸ 
 ̶    ۿ Ÿ   ״ ϰ
ִ.    μ   μ  Ÿ 
Ͱ  ̴.
  ºδ    ΰ縦 ϱ⿡ ʿ  ߽
Ͽ     ,  ȣ ߻ϴ 
мѴ. ù° 츮 ü  ϴ μ 28 .
° 츮  μ ǽ  Ǵ ɼҹ 52 ,
° ƹ    ǽ ۿ  ü, Ȥ 
ϳ  Ѵ.  ( )  ־  ٸ 
Բ Ѵ.  鿡 ϸ  ̾ ǽĵ 帧
 ̴.   Ŀ شϿ   ǰ , , 
  ϴ ̴. ̵     ߿
    ϴ 52  ҵ̴. ֳϸ ̵
츮 ,   Ż    ֱ ̴. 
ºδ  52 ɼҹ Ż  ִ 25 , ϴ 14
Ҽ, ׸ 13 ߼  3ַ зѴ. ºδ ̻ 
81  ܿ ̶    Ͽ  ļ 82
μ(7) ΰ ΰ ü輼踦 м ľϴ ̴.
  
  3. ü ö
  ºδ Ÿ    Ѵٰ ں, ºδ
 ε 信     Ϸе  
  ־. ε信 ҽºұ ǥϴٽ ϰ  ū
  Ĵ  üο. üΰ ºηκ
 ĻǾ  иġ  '' ۼ ,  Ƽī
 ̹ ϳ  ķμ   ֵȴ. ü(
'' θ) Ư εϺ ٶ ī̸ 濡  ڸ
 , ± 1-2 濡 ε Ϻο ߾Ӿƽþƿ
ļ ϴ Ǽ  īϽī  ޾ ũ 
ƴ.
  ε  º 7п ߵǴ ϰ    
ߴ.    ѿθ     
 ̸ ߿  ''̴.(8)   ± 
1 ι Ǵ īíǪƮ Ͽ  μ
, , , , , , ,  8׸ ұ  ٷ ü
̴.
  '' 2 ʹݿ 'Ļ'̶ 200  ֿ
 Ǿ.  ּ īϽī ڶ ڿ Ͽ
ī̸ 濡   ȸǸ  ű⼭ ϰ  ̶
Ѵ.    '' ּ Ӹ ƴ϶  ұ 
̳ ³  ܵ öб Ͽ ٷ鼭  뼺
ȮϷ ϴ ϳ  ̾. 'Ļ' ķ
ε ҽºұ ǥϴ  ˷ Ǿ,  ڵ
'Ļ' Ҹ. ׷ 'Ļ' ( )
Ÿ   ʹ ϱ  Ŀ   ߸
伭 ϰ Ǿ. 3 ʿ   'ƺɷ'
 å̴. ׷ ̷ 伭     ģ
'ƺ޸'̴.  å  ״ ҽºұ ö ǥϴ
μ, εӸ ƴ϶ ߱, ѱ, Ϻ  ҽ±
Թ  Ǿ Դ. ģ ü 4, 5  ι
ֵȴ. ״ ٶ濡 ¾ ī̸濡  'Ļ'
    ̾Ƽ 600   ű⿡ ڽ ּ Ͽ
'' ߴٰ Ѵ. ׷ ״ ü  ö 鼭
 ȸ  ʾ δ 淮ε Ÿö  
ϱ⵵ Ѵ. ߿ ״ ºұ Ͽ   
.  ''  ϰ 캽ν ö
ϱ Ѵ.
  '' , , , , , ߼, , , ľ ǰ
Ǿ ִ. ߿ ö  ߿   ü ۿ
 ǰ ǰ̸ ľǰ ܵ öб Ͽ ư
ϰ ִ.  3ǰ ߽ Ͽ '' ٺ ö 
   'ΰ' ö̶   ִ.
  ΰ̶  ΰ Һ ھư   , ׸ 
ҵ ȥü Ұ   ̴. ̰ ΰ , ,
, , ̶  ȭ  Ÿ ΰ ״ 
̴. ٸ 'ȸ'   75  ΰӸ ƴ϶
ϴ  ͵ ľϰ ϴ ̴. 츮 ̹ ºο 82
 ΰ縦 ϴ  ҰŴϿ '' 75 ̿ 
  ̴. ׷  öڵ   ⺻ ҷ
   ö   üϰ Ǿ. ׸Ͽ ΰ
 ϰ  ̴.   ( )ϳ  ϰ ִ ҵ
ױ Ѵٴ ̷̴. δ   '\ ü'
ǥϸ ̰ ö ٺ  ִ.   Ÿ ۿ
 ̳  ü , , ̷ \ Ͽ üμ
Ѵٴ ̴. ΰ  Ͽ ̷  ظ ϰ  ֿ
 ٵ 츮  () ȿ° ۿ ϱ 
̾. ࿡ ſ        ʰ
ٸ  ͻ̶ 糪 ̷ ־   Ÿ ٰŰ
 ̸ ̰  Ģ ϴ ̳  ̴.
 δ  μ \    ϴ ̴.
ο  츮 ü    ۿ ϱ Ͽ
ǥ Ȥ ǥ̶ Ư  Ѵ. ǥ̶ 11 
 ϳμ ܺο Ÿ 츮 ü   ģ Ŀ
  鼭    ʷϵ ϴ  
ʴ ̼  Ѵ.  ΰ  ִ̾  
̴.
  '' 75  3  еDZ⵵ ϰ 
зϱ⵵ Ѵ.   11, ɹ 1, ɼҹ 46, ɺһ
14, ׸  3 ̴. ̰  3 ϰ 
 ¿ Ͽ з    ִ.  ټ  
  ö  Ư¡  Ÿִ  ׹°
,  14 ɺһ̴. ɺһ̶  ǽ 帧
 ָ鼭 ɼҹó ǽ   ʴ ҵ ǹѴ.
 ɿ  ʴ ̶ ̴. ⼭ ̶ ,  
⿡ ǰϿ ߻ϴ ǹ Ѵ. ̷ ɺһμ
 Ѵ. ̷ ɺһμ δ    .
    -   Ͽ     ų Ұ ϴ
.
   -  Ͽ  ڱ ϴ   Ư ϰ
ϴ .
   - μ   ϴ .
  , ,  -    кۿ  Ż¸ ̷
ϴ .
   -   Ư¡ , , ,  .
  , , - Ҹ  忡 ׵ ǹ̸ ο ִ .
  ̻  14 ɺһ  ߿ 츮 ϰ
· ö ٿ  İ ſ  μ 
ö   ·ö ̹
Ǿ    ִ.  ο ϴ 3 ̶ ,  Ͽ 

 ø깫, ο        ø깫μ ̵ , , 
,
   ̰  ̶ Ѵ.
  ݱ 츮  , , Ǿǰ ߽Ͽ ö 캸Ҵ.
    κе  ǰ ǰ ǰ   ΰ 
Ͽ ǰ, ǰ, ǰ    ΰ  ϴ ̴. 
̷ ſ ̸ ¥ӻ ִ μ  öлӸ ƴ϶ ұϹݿ 
ħ̱⵵ ϴ. ģ  , , ,    Ͽ п
ּ .

    4. 淮ο ں
   ö  ü  Ͽ    ϳ
ü
  ϴ   ٿ̰  ̴. ̰  ƿ 

ϴ úұ  öа   Ÿ ִ μ, ϴ  

 ʴ  ã ΰ  ϳ  ǥ̶   ִ.
  ̷   ⿡ ݹϿ ׵ ǰϰ ִ   ϰ
 Ÿ  游   ϰ  İ 淮ο. 淮δ 2⿡
Ÿ Ͽ ηκ и Դ. ׵    
̳ ٸ  ؼ ׵     ִ.
  淮δ  ü  ϴ   ޾Ƶ ʴ´. ̶  

ϴ ̸ 翡   ̴.   ̱  ڸ 
.
 淮δ   ,  , ,     Ѵ.  

ؼ 淮δ  ٺ  \ü  ٷ ϰ
ü̹ü Ѵ. ׵  з ־    ʹ
ϳ ϸ     ʴ´. ̶  ü  

  ·μ οó   ü  ƴϴ. ݻӸ ƴ϶ ü 

 淮ο    ü    ƴ϶  ̸  ʴ
 ͻ̴. ̿    淮δ Ƿ Ÿ  ħ ٽ  
Ȯϸ鼭   ö źϰ   ö  ̴.
  淮δ 縦         ȸǸ ҷ 
.
࿡   ϴ ̶ 츮  繰 ϴ  츮 ̹ 

͸ ǽ ӿ ϰ ֱ  ̴.  츮  ܰ 踦 ״ 

ٰ ϴ ҹ   ̴. ᱹ 츮    ̴. 츮

ϴ   ü ٴ    λ ̴. ׸ 츮
λκ  ߸ Ͽ  踦     ̴. ̿  ܰ
νİɼ  ȸǴ ߿  ܰ 缺 ϴ ö ϰ 

̴.
       öп ݹߴ 淮ε Ƽ  

ȭų ϴ  ͼ ڽ   Ű ư Ǿ. ࿡ ΰ
簡
  ϴ  帧  ʴ´ٸ,  츮  üμ 

 ޴  ̿ ϼ   ְڴ°? ü ſ    

 ϴٰ μ Ÿ  Ǵ ϱ? 淮δ ̷ 鿡  
μ
켱 ΰ عٴڿ  帧  ϰ ִ   ü  ߴ. 

Ϲ̿ Ȥ ٺ̶ θ,  Ϲ̿   μ ؼ ۿ ϰ
ִ ̼ ǽμ ȸ ü Ǵ  Ѵ.   츮   
 μ ڵ  ȿ ϰ ִ.  ڵ 츮   ƽ 

츮 ȿ  Ǵ    μ,  ڵ ߿ Ǿ μ 

ΰ ȴٴ ̴. ̿  ڼν 淮δ  ϸ ο ϴ ǥ

̷п ϰ  ̴.  淮ο ϸ ڵ ẹⰣ  Һϰ ϴ 

ƴ϶ ϸ ִٰ μ Ÿٰ Ѵ. 淮 ̷  ߿
ºұ öп Ǵ ̴.
    ؼ ں(9)  ϳ Ư ̷ . ΰԴ °
ٸ, ׷     ʴ, ̿μ Ǫ尥 
־, ̰  ޴ μ  ȸ ϰų ݿ  ̶ Ѵ. 
δ
 Ǫ尥 ° 踦 Ұ    ٰ Ѵ. ġ  Ḧ 

   ׷ٰ ؼ  ü ƴ Ͱ ٴ ̴. ࿡ Ǫ尥
 ̿      װ    ̸ ̰ ߿ 

̸, ࿡ Ǫ尥 ° ϴٰ    ̰ ܰ߿  
Ѵٰ Ѵ. Ǫ尥 °   ƴϿ ° ٸ  ƴ 

 Ư  Ѵ.  ̷ ׽ ϴ  μ ΰ ڱ⵿ϼ

Ȯ԰ ÿ  οó  ΰ  ϱ ʰ  

߰  ھ ·μ ľϷ ̴.
  ̻󿡼  淮ο ں ̷е úұ ٺ   
 鼭, װ  ִ  ö , Ư ȸ   

 õμ,  ºұ ƶ߽  ̾ Ǵ ̴.
  ݱ 츮 º,  , 淮, ں м ν ± 

3  4⿡ ̸ ȿ  º ĵ ö 캸Ҵ.
  (9) ںζ ̸    Ȯ   ʴ. Ǫ尥 ̷ 
ϱ
 pukgalavada θ. 丶 Լ, 39, 92~126 .

    5. ߺ ұ
  ,  Ǹ ǥϸ鼭  ºο 븳Ͽ ü    Ļ
Ų
ߺδ ұߴ޻ ־  ο ̷е ߻״. ̵ Ŀ ºұ
    μ δ. 켱   ߺδ ο Ÿ ߴ. 
Ÿ
Ը  ð Կ  ׿    ΰμ  Ͽ 
,
ŵ  ׿    Ͽ ׸ ̻ȭϿ  Ӹ ƴ϶ 
ž α  ⵵ ̰ Ǿ. ׸Ͽ Ÿ  ܸ ־ ε

̻ ϴ  ΰ ߾ ϴ 32, 80븦 ߾   ʷ,
繫ܿ  ź񽺷  ٰ Ѵ.  Ÿμ    

   ª Ⱓ ุμ   ٴ  ٰϿ Ÿ 

  Ǹ  ׾  Ʋٰ ϰ ƴ. ̿    ̾߱

  Ǿ. Ӹ  ƴ϶ Ÿ ڵ ߸  ׵ 

ǰ 赵 ϰ Ǿ ŵ  ž̶    ȿ  ġϰ 
ž
 ð 鼭 ϸ  ȭμ ׵ ž ǥϱ⵵ ߴ. ̷ 
Ÿ
 ְ Ž ߺο   ε巯, Ÿ  ʼ  Űȭ
ؼ   ̴. ߺο     Ҽ  ⼼̸  

 ,    ̰,   °   , ״ 

ϵ  ʿ    ȴٰ Ѵ. ߺδ  Ÿ 
⸦
ϴ 쿡 Ͽ ϱ⸦ ׵ ߻ ̷Ӱ Ϸ  ϱ 
(̳ ƱͿ   ) ¾⸦ ϸ   ׷   ִ

Ѵ.
  ߺδ ٸ δ  ߻ ɼ  ϳ    Ͽ
 ̶ Ͽ  ߻      Ͻϰ ִ.(10)  

Ѵٰ Ͽ 淮ο   ü  ޾Ƶ ʴ´. ߺδ
 9 ߴ.  ø, ø, , ó, Ĺó, ó, 
ó,
, ̴. ̰   3 ̿ܿ  ܰ, ,  
 
 糪   ̴.
  (10) ̻ ߺ  , ż 49, 15ʿ ٰ.


      6. ٶ󹮱 
    1. ٶ󹮱 ұ
  ұ ̳     ٶ󹮱 뿡 Ŀٶ Ÿ
ߴ. ٶ ߽   ǽİ ̿  ٶ󹮰 
,
ȸ  ־ ̴. ұ ̳   ո ԰ μ
  ,  ȸε  ʼ̰   
Ͽ
ٶ󹮰 Ư  ʰ  Ǿ. ̷  ̹ ٶ󹮱 ο 

Ĵϻ   ϱ⵵  ̾. ׷ ٶ󹮱 뿡  ū 

  ٵ ұ.
  ұ Ư 츮߿ Ƽī Ǹ  ޾   Ʒ ũ  â

ε μ ϰ  Ӹ ƴ϶ ֺ 鿡 ĵǰ Ǿ.
Ƽī 츮߿ Ǽ  îŸ ڷμ B.C. 269濡  
Ҵ.
îŸ ˷ ε Ϻħ   ε ġ ȥ ƴŸ 

뱹̾  ٿ ϰ  ŻǪƮ Ͽ 츮߿
ߴ(B.C. 320). îŸ   ̸  Ǹ ڷ  īƿ

 ޾ ε  ʷ  ϱ ϴ  ̷  ̴.
  Ƽī ġ Ͽ  װ    ֿ  ӷɵ Ͽ 

   ִ.  Ģɿ    ״  Ȱ Ͽ   Ȯ

  ε ߵ ī    Ŀ   ݰ   

ϰ Ǿٰ Ѵ.  ״ ̷κ     Ȯå ϰ   

 ¸ ߱ϴ    å Ҵٰ Ѵ.  ״ ̿  

å Ͽ  κ  ¸ ŵξٰ  ϰ ִ.  ־ 
״
 Ǯ ڸ Ͽ 氡 dz ɰ ްԼҸ  칰 Ĵ ,
   ġ  ȸ . ״ Ư İ 縦 
  ʸ ߴٰ Ѵ. ״ ̷   ġ Ͽ 
濡 İϿ ϰԱ Ͽ.
  Ƽī   ܵ鿡  Ǯ  ڽ , ,  ﺸ
 ұڿ. װ Ϸ   ̶ Ÿ  ö  Ѵٱ⺸

ַ     , ư װ ٶ ȸμ ٸ ƴ

ұ   ԰    ǹߴٴ  ū Ǹ  
.
  츮߿ Ƽī  ޼ ϰ Ǿ ε ٽ ġ ȥ
. B.C. 183濡 ٶ  屺 ǪƮ   Ÿ 
츮߿ ϰ  ߴ. ״  ٶ źڷμ 
縦 ȰŰ ұ źߴ.
  ̻   ȲϿ  ٶ󹮱 ڵ ׵  ϸ ұ 

  Ͽ ׵ ȸ  Ȯ ʿ信  ̴. 츮 
ñ⿡ ٶ󹮱 ü   ο  ذ    ִ. ù°
ұ  ؼ    ü踦  Ű ̴. ̰ 䰡

ü  ư. °, ٶ󹮱 Ƹ  ε ֹε鿡  

ڰ ִ  žӰ  Ͽ  ž  , °δ ұ

 ѽؿ 簡ڵ   ȰԹμ ȸü Ȯ . ̷

µ Ͽ ٶ󹮱   μ   Ȯϸ鼭 ұ 
óϿ ̴. ٶ󹮱 ̷ ο  ߼  ݿ ְ ִ   
 
200濡 ϼǾٰ  󸶾߳ ϹٶŸ  õ̴. Ư
ϹٶŸ Ƿ ε ȭ ȭ Ҹ      پϰ dz
ϸ
, ö, , ġ, , ȭ,      ̴.  
ϹٶŸ ߽ Ͽ ٶ󹮱 ο  Ͽ .

    2. ٽŰ 񽴴 ž
   ϹٶŸ ٽô Ƹ  ϳ ٶŸ μ, 
α ũƮ 濡   ѷ  ̾߱⸦ 
߽ɼ ϰ ִ. ׷  1000 (B.C. 800~200 A.D.)   ΰ ڶ

 ٶ󹮵 տ Ͽ      ȥԵǾ, 翡 
10    ÷μ 18   ִ.   ϹٶŸ 

κ ٶ   ״ ϰ , ٸ δ ٿ ã 

鵵 ߰ߵȴ.  ߿ Ư ߿  α   ž 
ٽŰ 񽴴 ̴.
  ٽ  ϶ij ٷ  ߱  δ ȭ  

õǾ, Ƹ   ε  ֹε鿡    ִ  , 
 
Ƹ 뿡    ߰ Ǿ. ׷ ŸŸ Ĵϻ

 ı Ĵϻ忡 ͼ ٴ     Ͻõǰ ٸƴ  ü
μ
ֵǰ ȴ. ̰   ȿ ٽſ   ž θ Ǿ ϴ 
.
ϹٶŸ ͼ ״  ָ â    Ӹ ƴ϶ ׿ 
ȭ 뵵 dzϰ Ǿ,   ī϶  ӿ   Ͽ 

 Ǹ  ư  Ӹ⿡ ʻ ɷ ְ ̷κ 
 귯´ٰ Ѵ.    ڵó   ְ    

ְ ִ.  翡   â װ Ÿ ٴϴ Ȳ   
Ƹٿ Ƴ ĸƼ Ȥ 츶 Բ   ӿ ϰ ִ. ̿ ÿ 

  â μ  ¡ Ͽ DZ⵵ Ѵ. ټ ̹
϶Ĺȭ  ãƺ  ִ.
  ׷ ϹٶŸ ٽźٵ  ū  ž  ϰ ִ 
񽴴̴. 񽴴   ٿ 帶 ̹  ߿  ޵, 
װ
 ž      ۿ ǰ ִ ټٳ ũ 

, Ȥ ٶ 뿡    ϳ  ߳ Ͻõ ķκ̴.
ư ϹٶŸ 񽴴, ߳, ϸ, ټ, ũ    
Ͻõǰ , ٰƮ,    , ֶ   Īȣμ Ҹ ־ ׿ 

žӰ  θ  Ǿ  ϰ ִ. 񽴴   ٿ

,  ȭ ϸ ״ °    õ      

ִ   κ   ڶ󳭴.  κ â  

¾ 踦 âѴ. 谡 â 񽴴 ῧ  ֻõ Ÿ
踦 ٽٰ Ѵ. ״ ַ     ο  ΰ Ǹ ū
 ٸ Ÿ ٴѴ.  Ƴ  Ȥ   μ θ
Ǿ.
  ϹٶŸ  񽴴ž  ѷϰ ݿϰ ִ   ٰٵ
Ÿ̴. Ÿ α ̶̺ Ҹ  ߿  ö μ, 

Ӹ ƴ϶   ֵǰ մ ̴.      캸 
.

    3. ٰٵ Ÿ 
  ٰٵ Ÿ  ټٶ  ΰݽ ϴ ε  ٰŸĿ 

  μ, ߿ ϹٶŸ Ϻκ   ȴ.
ٰٵ     Ȥ   ڶ ̸, Ÿ   뷡
Ȥ ħ̶  ̴.  ٰŸĵ ϴ  濡 ũ  ־
, 
 ŰȭǾ  Ͻõǰ Ǿ, ٰٵž    ٶ
ȭ ߽ ε ο , ᱹ ټ-ũ 񽴴Ű Ͻõ

Ǿ. ׸Ͽ ٰٵ Ÿ  ְ Ǵ ũ 񽴴 ȭα
ֵǰ  ̴.
  ϹٶŸ ٶŸ߿  ̰ Ǵٹ  ī     

ο ̴̾߱. ٰٵ  Ÿ     6ǿ ԵǾ ,   

 . Ǵٹ 5  °̸ ũ ģ Ƹ곪  ̵
ī  忡  Ͽ  ̷ Ѵ.    ״ ⸦ Ұ 
.
   ׾   ϰڴٰ   , Ƹ곪 ̷μ 
׸
 ũ ׿ μ ǹ ο ؾ߸ Ѵٴ  Ų. ̰
ٰٵ Ÿ Ļ ̾߱ Ǿ  ִ. ٰٵ Ÿ   뿡 ־ 

ü öг⺸ٴ  Ż   õ   
ǰ̴. ٽ ϸ ٰٵ Ÿ  ü    Ѵٸ 䰡
̶   ִ.
  ٰٵ Ÿ 3 䰡 ϰ  ִ.   䰡,  䰡, ׸ ž 
̴.
 ΰ , ,  3鿡  ϴ ̶   ִ.  䰡   

ǹϴ μ, Ÿ  Űöп ־ó  μ ھƿ
,  ھƿ͸ и  ϴ  ǹϸ, Ȥ Ĵϻ Ͽ

  ƴ  ǹϱ⵵ Ѵ. ž 䰡 ſ, Ư 񽴴ſ  

ϰ ׿    ſ Ͽ ȸ κ  ް ȴٴ
̴. ž  ̹ ŸŸ Ĵϻ忡 Ÿ  ٰٵ
Ÿ ͼ
μ  ڼ ̰ Ǿ,     žӿ ŷ öл

  ġ Ǿ.
   䰡 Ÿ ־   Ưϰ â μ, ٶ ȸ 

Ż  踦 ؼ ִ     ǰ ִ. ٶ ȸ 
ϸ
̶  ڱⰡ  ް ̰ ϴ ùٸ
 dharma Ͽ߸ ϸ ׷ ؾ߸ ȸ Ǵ ̴.
׷ ƹ ùٸ   츮 ڿ   
 ̸  ȸ 迡 ӹڵ ۿ  ̴. ̷
 ؼ Ĵϻ Ŀ   ϸ ȸ 踦
   Ҿ ź ĸ ߱ϴ  ̻
 ϰ  ̴. Ư ұ Ͽ ̷   
Ȯʿ ȸ      ٶ󹮰
ڵ鿡Դ  ȸ ϰ Ǿ, ٶ󹮱 ü
ȸ  ϴ  ֵǰ  ̴.  "ٰٵ
Ÿ" 
䰡  ȸ ؼϴ  ü Ż ̻ ġǴ
 ƴ϶  Ѵ. "Ÿ" ϸ 츮 ӹ 
   ü ƴ϶   ϴ ̶ Ѵ.
 ƹ    ϴ   ʷ ʴ´ٰ
ϸ鼭   µ Ѵ. "Ÿ" ϱ⸦ 
ڿ  õ    ,   ϴ
ϴİ ƴ϶,  ڼ ϴİ ̶ ̴.
 ٿ ü "   ʴ ü" ƴ϶, "
 ü" ϰ ִ. ׸Ͽ  Ż 
ī 䰡 Ͽ Ǵ ̴.
  ׷   ϸ鼭 ü   ִ°?  Ͽ 
   ƴ    ְڴ°? "Ÿ"   
 ϰ ִ. ù°,  ʿ伺̴. Ư Ű öп
ϴ  ΰ ̻  Ǵ Ű   ȥ
 Ȯ  ƴ  Ѵ. ΰ   츮 
ھư ϴ ̸, 츮  ھ     
  ο   ڿ ٴ ̴.
    츮 ƹ   츮  ũƼ
ʿ ǰ  ڿ ൿ  ̶ ̴.
  ī 䰡 ٸ   츮   ſ  
  ؾ Ѵٴ ̴. ̷   μ
 ʷ  Ӹ ƴ϶  ѿ  ׿  
ϴ  ̸ ȴٰ Ѵ. ̻    ᱹ 
䰡  䰡 ž 䰡κ ؼ ִ ̶⺸ٴ ٷ
 žֿ ԰  ̶ ؾ  ̴. ư "Ÿ"
  信 Ͽ ȸ ǹ Ż̶ ʿ
̻ ÿ 츮  ൿ ö   ε
Ư  ̴. "Ÿ"  䰡  Ͽ δ
缺޿ ٰ  ȸ ȣ, ٸ δ
ž  Ͽ ڳ  ޱ   
    ̴.   ڴ 
Ⱑ ڰ ƴ϶   κ ο ̱
̶ ̴.
  "Ÿ"  ڼ 캼  ,  žָ   ϰ
, δ 翡    ǥ δ° ϸ ٸ 
ſ    ְ  õǰ   žֿ ̸
 Ѵ. ü   "ٰٵ Ÿ" Ĵϻ
Ͽ  Űö  , ڰ  ž
    ؼҵ  ä     ִ.
׷Ƿ ļ Ÿö  ī 󸶴ڰ  ڱ
ö 忡        ϴ "Ÿ" ؼ
ϰ  ͵  ٰŰ ̹ "Ÿ"  ؾ  ̴.


    4. "Żǰ" Ÿ öл

  "ٰٵ Ÿ" Ҿ "ϹٶŸ"  ϳ ߿ ö
κ 12 "Żǰ"̴. "Żǰ" öл  
üȭ  ƴ϶       ݺǾ
Ÿ° ϸ ȣ  Ǿ ֱ⵵ ϴ. ׷  
ַ Ű߿䰡ö ̴.
  츮 ̹ ı Ĵϻ鿡 Űö  Ÿ 
߰ŴϿ "ϹٶŸ" "Żǰ"   Ű  
Ǿ üȭ  Ű     · Ǿ   

ִ. ٽ ϸ "Żǰ" εöл Ǵ ı Ĵϻ
 üȭ Űö  Ű   츮
شٴ  ִ. Ư Ű ö 25   ʰ
̹ ̷  츮   ִ.
켱      
 5 Ǿ ǰ , ° ̶ Ҹ
DZ ɸμ   θӸ Ǿ ִ. 
Ҽ ̷   ٿ شϴ  Ȥ Ұ
ǰ ȴ.     ٶ Ҹ ϴ  ̶
Ҹ   Ұ ߰Ǿ εö Ϲ 
Ǿ.   Ҿ ׵  ϰ ִ  ǰμ
    dz  ޵ȴ. ׷ ߿ 츮 ϰ
 Űü迡ó    üǾ  ,
뵵 κ س  ƴϴ.  ټ  
ٰ ۱   11ٵ  κ   Ǿ
־,κ     Ű  ̸ ̰
ִ. ̿ܿ   Ǫ   ũƼ 
, Ű ö 輳 ߿ ̷ ǰ ִ 3 
ãƺ  ִ.
  "Żǰ" ̷ Ű öлӸ ƴ϶ õ  
䰡   Ű öа ϰ 
 ä ߰ߵȴ.
"Żǰ" 䰡 ȸ   ڳ ڵ鵵 õϿ Ż  
 ִٰ Ͽ, Ű  öп Ͽ 䰡 , õ
 ϰ ִ. 䰡 õ    ص
߰ߵdz,  ٽ   κ Ͽ DZٿ 
  Ȱ ߾ 츮 ھƸ  巯 Ϳ ִ.
Ʈ ƴ  Ʈ ü ϱ⵵ ϰ Ȥ ̶ ϱ⵵ ϳ,
DZ̶ ذ ̴.  DZ Ʈ Ҿ ȸ ü
ȴٴ  츮 ָ .  Ű öп ־ ε 
ϰ ִ  Ұ   ְ ִ ̴.


    5. Ķ ȸ Ȯ

  ұ ƹ ռ Ȱ Ӱ 
  
Ͽ  μ ٶ󹮱 ϴ  Ͽ ϴ,
ұ μ Ѱ   ϰ ־. װ ұ
Ÿ ú Ⱑµ ߽  ߽ ٴ ̴.
 Ż   ɰ   簡ڵ ϻȰ
  ұ ׵   ü  ִ ü
 ߴ. 簡ڵ Ȱ ﺸ Ͽ 踦 Ű
° ʿ  ø ϴ   ο.  ׵ ϻ
Ȱ ӿ  İ  ׵  ϴ  ٽô
̷ ؼ    ̾.  Ĵϻ
ô ̷ εε  ȸ  
 ȭǸ鼭
 ü  ൿ  μ   ް Ǵ
ΰ ϴ  Ͽ 簡ڵ ڿ     ̴.
 ٳ 帶   Ǹ ַ ٷ
μ Ĵϻ    Ǿ , 
 帶 ̷ ؼ ٶ ڵ  
Ǿ. ׸Ͽ  ǽĵ Թ .ϴ "õ", 簡ڵ
ȸȰ ǹ  а  ִ "", ̳ "ǹ"
ǰ  ̴. ⼭ "ǹ"   Ģ  ü ٰϿ
װ Ѵٰ Ͼ  ǹӸ ƴ϶ ȸ ǹ
ǹϰ Ǿ. "ǹ" ̷ 鿡 ٶ󹮱  ſ
߿ μ  ȸ Ͽμ Ѿ ϴ ȸ ǹ
 Ƿ Թ  ϰ ִ. ̷ "ǹ"  Ͽ
±  200  300 ̿ ε
ȰԹ  ϰ ü    ǰ
 ̴.    ִ 
 (200B.C~300 A.D) Ű߹(100~300)  μ,
̵ 츮߿  , ȸ,     
ȸ Ȳ ұ  ٶ󹮰 ,   ó
ٶ󹮵 μ ̷ ̾.
   鵵 Ĵϻó İ Ż λ ְ ǥμ
ϰ  ̵      ӿ
Ѿ  ùٸ ǹ  ü  ִµ ִ. ̷
ǹ ü ٰ ̷ ִ  ٵ 
"ƽ",  缺 ȸ ǹ λ ⿡
 ߱ؾ  ̻  ¸  ִ ̴. Ư
 ⿡  ̷  ȸ  ؼϸ  簡
 ʼ Ż ߱  ֵ ϴ μ   ̴.
,  1  Ȱμ, Ƶ⸦ ģٴ ǥμ
Թ      Ͽ   й 
ݿ Ȱ Ѵ. 2⿡ нⰣ   簡ڷμ ȥ
ϰ ŵ 鿡 縦 ø , İ踦    ϸ
  θ ߱ϴ Ȱ Ѵ. ""  ñ⸦
ٶ ȸ ٽμ  ߿ϰ ִ. 3 ڷμ
  ġ ڸ     ϸ鼭 
ݿ Ȱ Ѵ. ̰ Ӽ Ȱ̴.  4⿡
 ü ȸ 踦    " "μ
 Ż 踸 ߱Ѵ.
  ̿  Ͽ ٶ ȸü λ ߱ؾ  ġ
ġħ  ְ ߱  ֵ ν ұ
Ż߽  ϸ ȸü  ϰ ̴.




      2 εö üȭ

      7 Ű 䰡ö

    1 εö üȭ
  ݱ 츮 ± 1500  2  ģ
εö ⸦ ؿԴ.  Ⱓ εö  θ
  Ⱓ پϰ â ö  Ǿ ļ ͼ
üȭ ö ĵ ٺ  ִ ع ǰ ֱ
̴. ̵ پ  ҽºұ  ĵ ϰ
κ  ִ  νķ  Ͽ  ü
̷̶⺸ٴ   ü迡 ԰  ö ̶
ϴ   Ÿ ̴. 츮 ݱ  ö 
 Ŀ ־ Ĵϻ峪 ұ  ַ ȭ 
ϰ ,   ö  ϰְ ü
ϰų ȣϴ  ƴ ̴. ׷   200ʹ
 ٶ     帧 Ͽ  
  ĸ ̷ Ǿ ̵ ڱ ö ص
ϰ Ͽ ϴ ̶  ϰ Ǿ. 
  ٺ Ǿ,   ʹ ϰ ϱ 
ڿ ׿  ּ ҿ    üȭϿ ٷ 
 Ǿ. ̷ εö  ü  ƹ ұ
 ö   ϸ, ̷κʹ εö 
 İ ȣǽİ   ǰ Ǿ.  
ĵ ׵ ̻ ظ ϴ  ġ ʰ ư
׵   νķ عħϷ µ ̰
Ǿ. ̷ν εö ڱݼ ο ܰ  
̴.
  츮 ̹ º, ü, 淮ο  ҽºұ ü
 ߰ŴϿ ʹ ٶ öа ºұö
ü踦  ö 뿡  θ鼭 ĺ ϱ Ѵ.1)
  1) ҽºĺұ ö ñε Ƽī ķ Ͽ 
DZ ߱ ,  ǻ 1() ٷ.
׷ üγ 淮  Ĵ ñγ ε
2(ü) ٷ   д.

  2 Ű 䰡ö 
  Űö ε üȭ ö     
.2) Űö  츮 ̹  ٿ 
'īŸĴϻ' 'ŸŸ Ĵϻ'  ı Ĵϻ忡
иϰ Ÿ   'ϹٶŸ' 12 'Żǰ'
 ʱ Űö ° Ÿ  츮 츮 ̹
Ҵ. Ư 'ٰٵ Ÿ'  ,   2~ 3
濡 Űߴ 䰡 Ҿ ϳ  Ȯ μ  
̸, 'Ÿ'    ־ ̴. ׷ ̷
 鿡 Ÿ ִ Ÿ ִ Ű ö  
 ߴ޵  ʱ μ ߿   ŷ
Ű öа   ̰ ִ.
  Ű ö  īʶ  4   
ϸ,   ƽ ī  Ͽ  µǾٰ Ѵ.
׷ ̵ ʱ Ű 󰡵  ϳ  ִ  
īʶ ؼ ٰ  'Ż' ڵ鿡 ϸ
 9     ִ.3) 17
Ÿö ij򽴴   ּ , ״ 
Űöп  ߿ ⺻μ '' å .
  ϴ  Űöм    Ǹ ÿ  ߿
 ̽ٶũ  'м'̴. 츮  'м'
ͼ ö и ̿, ŷ ö Ǵ 
 ȴ. 'м'  4 濡   Ǹ4)
 70 Ǿ ־ '70'̶ Ҹ⵵ ϸ, ε 
öм  ̷ ֵǴ ̴. 8 ö Ĵ
ּ 'мۼ' 9 Ÿ ö Ƽ̽ ּ
'' ִ.
  Ű ö  ķμ ټ   
 Ű ö  ̷е Ÿ ö  Ÿöĵ鿡
Ǿ 5) ε   ū  ־ Դ.
  Űö   ϳ ߿ ڷ 䰡 ̴.
䰡 Űö  ̻  ״ ޾Ƶ̰ ִ
ÿ õ    ϰ ִ ķμ, '䰡'̶
ٺ  ִ. '䰡'  ź߸ B.C. 2
ι 6)   ˷ , ǻδ ±  4~ 5
濡 ϼ  ֵȴ. 7) ׷  䰡  
̺ ν  ұϿ ã   ִ ̴. 䰡 
Ƹ ̹ ٽô ٶ󹮵   ź̰ ڿ
   Ͽ ϴ   ã    ̴.
Ȥ ̺ٵ  ռ, δ   䰡 ¹ 
Ż ߱ʿ  䰡 Ƹ ٳ Ƹ dz  
 ƴ϶ Ƹ  ƴϾ°  ھƳ ִ.
ư 'īŸ Ĵϻ' '䰡'   
Ͽ ڸ νϴ  ϰ , ̷ 
̹ Ÿ Ȥ ׿   ִ Ⱑڵ 
Ͽ ̴.
  'ϹٶŸ' ͼ 䰡 Ű߿ Ҿ   и 
üμ ǰ ִ. Űߴ Ż ̸ ̷ ,
׸ 䰡    õ   Ǿ
صǰ ִ ̴. ̷  õ  Ÿ󰡵
ö ü ʿ  '䰡' ͼ ٵ ǰ
 ̴.
  '䰡' ּμ    ٻ '䰡'̴. 
Ұ  ' ظ'̶  ް ִ   ̵
 ÿ 8) ̹ Ű öа 䰡   صǰ
־ ְ ִ. ׷ 䰡 ö ŷ μ
 Ű߿ʹ ٸ   ־ٰ ȴ. ư
9 Ƽ̽  ҿ 'ȿ' ָ 
̿ Ͽ 䰡ö м ǰ Ǿ. 16 ij򽴵
 ҿ '䰡'̶ ּ '䰡'' 䰡ö
伭 ߴ.
   ̽ٶũ 'м' ź߸ '䰡', ׸
Ƽ̽ ּ ߽ Ͽ Ű 䰡 ö 밭
캸 ϸ,     ߿  ϱ Ѵ.

  2) Ű ö 踦 25(tattva) Ͽ ϹǷ 
߽Ѵ Ͽ ̶ ҷԴ. 'Samkhya'  'ϴ '
   Ǯ̵ǰ ִ.
  3)   Sankara ؼ ޵ ʰ  9
Vacaspatimisra   ſ 'м' ּ    
߿   ֵȴ.
  4) 'м' 560濡 ü Ͽ ּ Բ Ǿ.
  5) 17 񽴴 Ÿ ö ij򽴴 Ű ö
ľ-̽ī öа Ҿ  Ÿ    ߴ.
״ Ű ö    ϴ ڸ Ͽ, ׵ 
ȥ ̸  ұ ־ ħ̶ ߴ.
  6) J.H. Woods  The Yoga System of Patanjali (Cambridge:
Harvard Univ. Press, 1914)  ź߸ B.C. 2 
ź߸ʹ ٸ ι ϰ ִ. ׷ Dasgupta ڸ
 .  A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, p.
238
  7)   ؼ Woods ؿ 
  8) J.H. Woods  븦 300~ 500,  븦 650~800
 ִ. ̿ Ͽ  ̼ ־ Ȯ ʴ.



  3 
  Ű ö ұ  踦  ,   غϷ
 ö  ָ ִ.    ־
ұ  䰡 ü迡  ɸ ,  ΰ
ɸ  ߽ Ͽ 踦 ľϷ  £,
Ͽ ؼ ϰ ִ. ׷ ÿ Ű ö
ұ  ʰ ִ ΰ  ھ,  Ǫ
(:purusa) 縦 ϰ ,   ұ
 ̸ ̰ ִ. Ű ö   縦 
purusa  prakrti̶   ̻ μ Ѵ.
  ΰ ٷ ϸ Ű ö ٺ ľϰ
Ǵ ̴.
  ũƼ,  ̶  Ű öп Ư ǹ̸
ϰ ִ. ũƼ Ǫ   ü
׷κ Ǿ  ¿  μ  avyakta̶
Ҹ. ,  迡  ٿ  Ѱ踦  
 и  Ÿ  ɼ 踦 ǹѴ.
 ü  ε   , ׷κʹ  
Ǿ     upadana-karana,Ȥ 1
pradhana Ǹ,  â  sakti Ǵ ̴. Ű öп
ϸ         ο ̹
ϰ ־ Ѵ.     
̹ ο ϰ ִ   ̰ Ÿ Ϳ
Ұ ̴. ̷ ظ εöп  satkarya-
vada̶ θ.   karya  karanaӿ ̹  sat
Ѵٰ ϴ ̸, üο  ҽºұ -
īö ǥϴ ߹ asatkaryavada  ̷.
 ǥϴ ö    ٿ
   parinamavada ִ° ϸ,  
ȯ Ÿ   vivartavada ΰе ִ. ڸ
  ǥϴ  Ű ö̰ ڴ  ̷ Ÿ
öп    ã   ִ.   ڸ,
     ȿ ̹ ׾Ƹ  ʴ
 ϰ ְ, ׾Ƹ  ٿ  ̴.
ݸ鿡     븸  ̰ ׾Ƹ
 Ÿ  ʴ´ٴ ̴.
Ű  ϸ,  ü pralaya ȭ sarga
 Ӿ ݺѴٰ Ѵ. ü ¿  ũƼ
ӿ  ϰ  Ǿ Ÿ ʴ ¸
ϸ, ȭ ũƼκ    Ǿ
  Ѵ. ׷   ü ȭ ǮϰԲ
ϴ°? Ͽ  ũƼ  üμ ü ¿
ӹ  ʰ ȭ  Ѿ°?   
Ű ö  ϱ ؼ ũƼ ü 
 ʿ䰡 ִ.
  Ű߿ ϸ ũƼ Ʈ sattva, ڽ rajas, Ÿ
tamas    guna Ǿ ִ.   ҵ
    κ ߸ μ, Ʈٴ
, , ſ,  prakasaka,    
, ڽ  Ӿ , ,  Ӽ
 ְ, Ÿ , ſ, , ,  
Ӽ ٰ Ѵ.   ̴ ũƼ 
  Ұ   յǾ     ΰ
ϴ   ȴٰ Ѵ.   Ҵ μο 
ָ, Ѱ °  ũƼ ·κ  
и Ѱ ¸  󼼰踦 Ų. ࿡  
Ұ     ־   samyavastha ̷
    ҵ ü ٻ  ϰ ֱ
     Ÿ ʱ 
ũƼ ƹ    ״  ְ ȴٰ Ѵ.
  ׷ٸ Ͽ ũƼ ̷ °  Ǵ°?
Űö      . ũƼ
 Ǫ 翡 ְ ν purusa-samnidhi-matra 
ٰ Ѵ. ġ ڼ ö    samyoga
־߸ μ  ũƼκ Ǿ ´ٴ
̴. ׷   ΰ    ϰ
Ǵ° ϴ  ̴. Űߴ ϱ⸦ Ǫ ũƼ
 ΰ θ ʿ ϱ ̶ Ѵ. Ǫ
ع apavarga̳  bhaga, enjoyment Ͽ ũƼ
ʿ ϸ, ũƼ ڽ  ˸  ڷμ
Ǫ ʿ Ѵٴ ̴. Ȥ ԰  ϴ ̰
 ϴ Ͱ   ϱ⵵ Ѵ.
׷ ̿  Űö    
ۿ . ࿡ Űöп ϴ  ؼ̶
Ǫ ũƼ и ̷ ̶ Ǫ
ع Ͽ ũƼ ʿ Ѵٴ  ϱ 
 ̴. Ӹ ƴ϶ Űö  Ͽ  
ΰ ̻  ̿ ó ̶  
Ѱ  ؾ߸ Ѵ.   ذϱ Ͽ
Űö     ƴ϶ ٸ ׷  
̶  samyogabhasa .
  ư Ű߿    Ǫ ũƼ ˿
Ͽ ũƼ  ´  Ѵ.  ˿
Ͽ    ޴  ũƼ  
   ִ ڽ rajas̴.  ڽ 
鸮 ϸ Ʈٿ Ÿ  鸮 Ǹ ȭ
 ۵Ǵ ̴. ϴ    ũƼ
  .
    Ư   Ÿ  Ʈٸ  
ǰ ϴ ׵ buddhi̴. ׵ ַδ ׷κ
ٸ   谡 Ǿ   ( 
mahat)̶ Ҹ, ɸ.δ   ν
 ִ μ ׵,  ̶ Ҹ.  ׵  ӿ
ְ ü  ũƼ   ȴ  
׵ ϰ ,  ׵   
Ͽ     samskara, mental disposition
ϰ ִٰ Ѵ. ׵  ũƼ,  
깰μ  ü  cit ǰ   ʴ. ׵ װ
 Ǫ ݻۿ Ͽ ޴´ٰ Ѵ. ׵ ġ
ſ Ƽ Ǫ    ٸ ǵ ߰
Ǿ 츮 Ȱ, ν,   ϰ ȴٰ Ѵ.
 ׵  ݻ  ִ   ü   ,
 Ʈ Ұ ̱ ̴. ٽ ϸ, ׵
Ǫ   ǰ ϰ , Ǫ  
μ Ǫ ũƼ ߰  ϴ ߿ ġ
ϰ ִ.   ν Ȱ   Ǫ
 踦  ׵ ȣ    ̴.
 ν ü Ǫ ƴϰ ׵𸸵 ƴϰ 
 ̴.
  ⼭   Űö νķп ־ ̷ο ,
̼  ׵  Ͽ  繰
 akara   Ȥ   ,  ڽ 
 ٸ µ鿡  ÷ ȭѴٰ Ѵ. ٽ ϸ
׵ ܼ ű⿡     ϴ
 ƴ϶  鿡  Ͽ νİ 
Ѵٴ ̴.
  ׵κ ī ahamkara(Ƹ) Ҹ üȭ 
Ǿ ´. ɸδ ī  ٵ
ھǽİ   abhimana̴. Ǫ ڽ ٷ 
ī Ͽ θ  ü ϰ ȴٰ Ѵ.
ī ׵    ̱⵵ ϴ.
 װ  ǰ Ʈٳ  ڽ ŸĿ
    ī ϰ ȴ. ڽ
ַ  ǰ Ƿ  üδ  
 ʰ, Ʈٿ Ÿ ͼ ϵ ϴ ϸ Ѵٰ
Ѵ. Ʈ   Ǹ ī  
DZ manas  jnana-indriya, , , , ,
, ô ɷ°, ۱ karma-indriya,  ϰ 
̰,  ű, 輳ϰ, ϴ ɷµ Ѵ.
⼭  Indriya̶   ̴ ü  ǹϴ 
ƴ϶   Ͽ ۿϴ  ʴ  sakti 
ǹϴ μ, ߷ anumana Ͽ ƴ   Pra-
tyaksa  Ǵ  ƴ϶ Ѵ.
  ̻ ũƼ   ׵ ī 
(DZ) ɸ antah-karana̶ θ,  ʱ 
bahya-karana̶ θ.  prana ɸ 
ֵȴ.   ܺμ踦 ɸ  ִ 
ϸ, ɸ    ȴ.  ɸ
  Űü  μ,  Ͽ 
к nirvikalpa  ҿ sense data  Ű Ͽ
кϰ ϰ ؼϿ к savikalpa Ǵ('̰
̴', ' ' )  ٲٴ ۿ Ѵ. Ű
öп   ,  κе Ǿ , 
 ÿ    ִٰ Ѵ(̰ ڿ
ϰ, ľ-̽ī Nyaya-Vaisesika ϴ 
 ؿ  ̰ ִ). ̷  ۿ 
ī Ȱ '' 信  ڱ 
  ׵ buddhi Ѵ. ׵  
  鿡  Ѵ. buddhi-vrtti. ׷ ̰͸δ
 ν  Ѵ. ֳϸ ׵ 
ũƼ,    ̸  üδ  cit ǰ
 ̴.  Ǫ  ݻϿ μ 
Ǵ ̴. ̻     ũƼ 
  ΰ ν  ݴ    ִ.
ΰ ν    м Ͽ ν 
ٰŸ ̷ ҵ Ųٷ ö󰡸 ã  Ű
ö   ̴.
  ٸ , ߷   Ÿ ϴ īκʹ
 tanmatra, , ....  ̷ ̼
 ȴ.   տ Ͽ  bhuta ȴ.
,  κʹ  akasa,    dz vayu,
..  ȭ tejas, ...   ap,
׸ ....   ksiti 밡 Ǵ
̴. ⼭     ̴  鿡
԰Ͽ ׷κ  ߸Ͽ   ʴ 
縦 ϰ   . ̷ Ͽ 1 ȭ sarga
    տ Ͽ  ̴ 
󼼰 پ缺 Ÿ ̴.
  ̻  ũƼ      ׵ 
, δ ī󿡼 11  ϴ
 ,    ϴ    
󼼰 Ÿ Ǵ ̴. ī   Ư
 ִ ɼ    avisesa ϸ, ϱٰ
 ̹ Ư ֱ   visesa θ.
 ׵ ī   Բ ΰ  linga-
sarira, subtle body ̷ٰ Ѵ. ̶ 츮 ü ı
Ǵ  ؼ Ͽ  ٸ  ¾ Ǵ ȸ
 Ǵ ̴.    ȿ ſ  
Ͽ  츮   samskara ϰ ִٰ Ѵ.
  dharma  adharma,  jnana  ajnana,  vairagya,
 avairagya, ڿ  aisvarya,  anaisvarya 8 
̴.  ̷ ⿡  װͿ ˸´ · ٽ
¾ٴ ̴. ġ ع찡   ϵ 
   ¾ٰ Ѵ.
  ̹ ߵ Űöп ϸ ̻  ũƼ
 ǽ̱    ̷ ִٰ Ѵ.
 Ǫ  bhoga ع apavarga   ǹ̸
Ѵٴ ̴. ׷  Ǫ  Űö ̷
 .

  4 
  ũƼ    dz  ƴ 
ݸ鿡, Ǫ ε ƴϰ  ƴ  ̴.
Űö  Ǫ 縦 ν  ö
 ʴ ̴.
  Ǫ ϰ ϸ κа    ʴٰ
Ѵ. ׷ Ĵϻ忡 ϴ Ʈ̳ 常 ޸
Űö Ǫ  , ׷  ̴ 
 ̶ Ѵ.  Ǫ  , Ȥ
ڷμ  ȭ    ϸ, 츮 
 Ǵ   ,   ÷ ϴ
Ŀ Ͽ ƹ ⵵  ʴ´. ϴ  ׵
Ǫ ƴϱ ̴.
  Ű߿ ϸ Ǫ 絵 ũƼó ߷ anumana
Ͽ ˷  Ѵ. Űߴ Ǫ 翡 Ͽ
   Ѵ.    Ƿ װ ϴ
  ʿ Ѵ. ,  ü ʿ ϸ, 
 Ǫ ̴.  ΰԴ ȸ κ
   ִ. ׸   
ϴ ,   ʹ ٸ  簡 ־߸ 
̴.  ũƼ 迡 ִ  κе 
繰鿡Լ ߰ߵǴ   ġ  ǽ 縦
 ̶ Ѵ. Űߴ Ǫ ̷ ڿ  ȹ
designerμ ϴ  ƴϳ, ̷ ǵ  
޴ ǽ  Ѵ.
  츮 ⼭ ŷ Űöа ŷ  ϴ
䰡ö ̸  캼 ʿ䰡 ִ. Ű߿ 䰡
  ũƼ Ǵ  ӿ   ո
Ѵٰ Ѵ. ׷      
͸ ũƼ  ׷  ȭ  Ǵ
ΰ̴.   Ͽ Űߴ ũƼ ü Ǫ
Ϸ    ִٰ Ͽ    ־
ƹ ܺ  ۿ  ʴ´. ̿ Ͽ 䰡ö
ũƼ  ῩǾ ֱ   ׷ 
  , ٳ    ־  
 ڱⰡ   մ  ޵   ִ 
ũƼ üδ  ȵȴٰ Ѵ.  䰡ö
  ̽ٶ Isvara 縦 Ѵ.   
  ũƼ   εǸ Ǫ 
ȣǰ ȴٴ ̴.
   '䰡' ü   ɰ Ȱ 
ʰ ٸ  ӹ 𸣴 Ǫμ 䰡ڵ 
 Ǵ  صǰ ִ. ׷ ּ鿡 ͼ
̷ Ȱ  信  ʰ   ׸ Ȱ
 ľϰ Ǿ. ׸Ͽ  Vyasa  ̼
    Ƶ ָ  ڵ 
⵵ ϴ  ϰ , Ƽ̽ 
ֱ ȭ ü, ׸   Ģ ϸ
ٸ ϴ ڷμ ϰ ִ ̴.

  5 Ż
  ׷ Ǫ ع  Ѱ?   DZ Ͽ
츮 켱  Űöп ־ ӹ ΰ
  ȵȴ. 츮 ̹ ũƼ ü ȭ
 Ӿ ݺϰ  ߴ.  ũƼ 
 ũƼ Ǫ  samyoga   ̸,
Ư Ǫ ũƼ   ׵ 
ͼ,   ¿  ν , 
    Ǵ ̴. ٽ ϸ ׵
Ǫ ũƼ ȥԵǰ Ǵ  ߿ ġ
ϰ ִ. ׷   Ȥ ȥ   ϴ
 ƴϴ. ֳϸ Ǫ   ǽμ 
ο ũƼ  ̱ ̴.  
Ͽ Ǫ ׵ Ǿ ġ ׵ ޴  
µ Ǫ üϴ  εǰ ִٴ ̴.
  ٸ  ٲپ ϸ Űöп ־ ӹ̶ Ǫ
״븦  ϰ ȥϴ  ϴ ̴.
׵ Ʈ    ֱ   
̾, Ǫ  ݻϿ ġ  ü ǽ ִ
ó δٰ Ѵ.  츮 ׵ ° Ǫ
ƴ϶  𸥴ٴ ̴. ̰ Űöп ϴ
 ̴.
  䰡ö   ϱ⸦ 츮 ׵ ¸
ġ Ǫ  ϴ   Ѵ. Ǫ 
μ ƹ Ȱ   ȭ  ʴ ̴.
׷   ϴ ׵ ߾ µ ȥDZ
 Ǫ ü νİ  üμ ȭ ް ִ
ó δٴ ̴. ġ ƹ µ  ö  ձ
¸  ó ̴° ϸ,   ̰߰ ̴
Ͱ ϴٰ Ѵ. Ȥ  鸮 ῡ ġ Ǹ ġ
 ü 鸮 ó ̸  ü  ִ ó
̴ Ͱ ٰ Ѵ.  Ǫ ׵ и ϴ
к viveka-jnana Ż ʼ  Ǵ ̴.
  Űöп ϸ ̷ к ɼ ׵ ü 
߰ߵȴ.  ũƼ Ǫ ع̶  
Ͽ δ Ȱϰ , ũƼ  Ǫ
ӹϷ 簡 ƴ ̴. ᱹ ؼ   ũƼ
ü  ̸ ׵    ִٴ ̴.
ϴ ׵  ̷ к  Ǹ, ׵ ߽ 
츮 νİ  ġ Ǹ Ǫ    
 kaivalya ¿ ְ Ǵ ̴. 'м' 
̽ٶũ Isvarakrsna ϱ⸦ ũƼ ſ 
͵ Ƽ, ϴ Ǫ ڰ ڱ  Ĵٺ
ִٴ ǽ   ġ ȴٰ Ѵ. Ǫ ũƼ
ϴ    ̸ Ҿ ũƼ Ǫ
ٰ ϸ   ġ ȴٴ ̴.
  䰡öп  ׵𿡴ٰ ī ahamkara DZ manas
ԽѼ  citta̶ θ.   ȿ  
  samskara λ vasana, Ȥ  
ϰ ִ ȸ üμ, ̵    
 ǵ  ȯϰ ȴٰ Ѵ. 䰡ö 
   ϱ  Űöпó Ǫ
ع ܼ к ϴٰ  ʴ´.
  ӿ  ִ     ŵǾ
 Ǫó  · ȭǾ Ѵٴ ̴. Ӹ
ƴ϶ 翡 ؼ ο    븦 ϰ
ִ   ۿ ľ߸ citta-vrtti-nirodha ؼ
ϴٴ ̴.
  䰡öп ϸ  ټ    Ȥ  klesa
Ͽ ħǾ ִٰ Ѵ.   avidya, ư asmita, Ž
raga,  dvesa, Ž(Ž̶   Ͽ
 ηϴ  Ѵ)ε,  ߿  
 ũ,  4   ȴ. ̵  Ͽ 츮
  Ǹ, 츮     ӿ   
 Ǿ 츮 Ŀ ׿   ް Ǵ ̴.
  䰡ö 츮 ۿ 5 Ͽ ϰ ִ.
  pramana,  viparyaya, к vikalpa,  nidra,
 smrti̴.   pratyaksa ߷ anumana  sabda
 Ÿ ν κ  ̰ 
 Ʋ  Ѵ. к    
 ؼ ƴ ,   '䳢 '  ̰,
̶ ν 縦 ϴ μ ̰͵ ۿ ϳ
ֵȴ.    λ Ͽ  
ȸϴ ̴.
  ̷ ۿ  Ǿ   ϱ
Ͽ 䰡ö ü μ 8 ܰ 
 䰡 astanga-yoga Ѵ.   yama,  niyama,
¹ asana,  pranayama,  pratyahara,  dharana, 
dhyana,  samadhiμ,  ߿ ó ټ   
غ ܰ ֵǸ, 䰡 ñظǥ  ۿ ģ
 samadhi  ̸ ̴.

*
  Colebrook, H.T., trans., The Sankhya Karika; and H.H. Wilson,
trans., The Bhasya or Commentary of Goudapada. Bombay, 1887.
  Dahlman, J., Samkhya-Philosophie. Berlin, 1902.
  Danielou, A., Yoga: The Method of Re-integration. London, 1949.
  Dasgupta, S., The Study of Patanjali. Calcutta, 1920
  Yoga as Philosophy and Religion. London, 1924.
  Yoga Philosophy in relation to Other Systems of Indian
Thought. Calcutta, 1930.
  Eliade, M., Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. Princeton, 1958.
  Garbe, R., Die Samkhya-Philosophie. Leipzig, 1917.
  Samkhya und Yoga. Strasbourg, 1896.
  trans., Mondschein der Samkhya Wahrheit.(Vacaspatimisra
 Samkhyatattva-Kaumudi ).
Hauer, J. W., Die Anfange der Yogapraxis. Stuttgart, 1922.
  Yoga als Heilweg. Stuttgart, 1932.
  Jha, G., trans., The Yogasdrasamgraha of Vijnana Bhikshu. Bombay,
1894.
  Johnston, E.H. Early Samkhya: An Essay in its Historical Develop-
ment according to the Texts. London, 1937.
  Keith, A.B., The Samkhya System. London, 1918.
  Sharma, V.H.D., trans., The Tattvakaumudi (Vacaspatimisra's
Commentary on the Samkhya- karika) 3nd ed. Poona, 1934.
  Wood E., Yoga. Harmondsworth, England, 1959.
  Woods, J.H., The Yoga System of Patanjali, or the Ancient Hindu
Doctrine of Concentration of Mind. Ha vard Oriental Series, Vol.
17, 1914. (Yoga-Sutra, Yoga-Bhasya, Tattva-Vaisaradi ).




  8 · ö

  1. ·ö 
  Ű߿ 䰡ö   · Vaisesikaö1)  
Nyaya öа Բ ǵǾ Դ.     İ
 ޵ǰ Ǿ Ȯ   ,  Ĵ ó
ٺ  ־ ġѴٰ Ͽ,  ڰ踦
̷    Դ. ·Ĵ ַ  ̻
  ٷ   Ͽ, Ĵ 
̻  а νķ Ͽ ޹ħ ִ
̴. ε ٸ  ĵ ұ  ,
 ߿   Ĵ ش   ǥϴ
öμ ұ ö   븳Ͽ Դ.
  ·а   ٶ󹮰 ķμ ֵǾ 
 ־    뼺  ٺ 
̴. Ÿ ̸, ׸ Ű.䰡İ и
 ö  ٰϰ ִ ݸ鿡 ·а Ĵ
ٳ     ó Ǫ Purana  Ϳ
и   ã  ö̱ ̴.2)
  켱 · ֿ ö  캼  , ī
Kanaka ϴ Ƹ  ι   ִ
'·а Vaisesika-sutra'κ Ѵ.   Ȯ 
  ± 1-2 ǰ ȴ.  
 ݾ  ö  Ƴ μ ٸ 
ٺó ּ ̴ ϱ  κе 
ִ. ·ö  ü    ±
500濡  ŸĴ Prasastapada 'ǹ Padar-
tha-dharma-samgraha'μ, Ļδ '·а'  ּ
Ǿ   ־ ϳ  ̴.3)
ŸĴ  ؼ ̸ Vyomasiva(900-960)
' Vyomavati', ٶ Sridhara(950-1000) 'ʼ
Nyayakandali' ׸ پ߳ Udayana(1050-1100) 'ֿ
Kiranavali'  ּ .    ·а
ö Բ  ϴ پƵƼ Sivaditya 'ĥǷ
Saptapadarth'eh TmldjwuTek.4)  '·а' ŸĴ
'ǹ' ߽ Ͽ ·ö 밭 캸 Ѵ.

  1) ·'Vaisesika'  'Ư', ''  ǹϴ 'visesa' 
 μ  İ 踦 6ַ Ͽ ϱ  
̸̴. ׷ ߱ ұ뿡 'Vaisesika' 
'پ(ֽ)'  Ͽ  ĸ ·̶ ҷԴ.
   ״ .
  2) ·ö  Ͽ ̳,  Lokayata, Ȥ
̸ĺ Ǿ ̶ м    Ȯġ
ʴ. H.v. Glasenapp, Die Philosophie der Inder (Strttgart: Alfred
Kroner Verlag, 1974), pp.234-37 .
  3) S.N. Dasgupta, A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, p.306  .
  4)  ܿ  μ Kesavamisra Tarkobhasa, Annambhatta
Tarkasaingraha   Ŀ .


  2 
  ·ö 踦    padartha() Ͽ
мѴ. ⼭ ֶ  ܼ ߻  ϴ 
ƴ϶  鿡 شϴ,  ϸ ǥ  ִ
  Īϴ ̴. ٽ ؼ ·ö 踦
     ؼϰ ִ.
  ù° ִ ü dravya. ü ű⿡  ̳ 
  ִ,  ̳    ִ  ̴.
 ü  ǵ   Ǵ ̴. ·п
ϸ ü 9 ִ.   prthivi,  ap, ȭ agni,
dz vayu,  akasa, ð kala,  dis, DZ manas, ھ atman̴.
, , ȭ, dz,  5   panca-bhutaμ, 5
  Ͽ    ִ  Ư
visesa-guna ϰ ִ.    ڿ Ͽ
Ǵ   ,  Ϳ Ͽ Ǵ Ҹ
 ٰ . ..ȭ.dz װ͵ ϴ ̼
 paramanu Ǿ ִٰ Ѵ.  ڵ 
 κ   ʱ   ̻   ,
    ı     nitya  ݸ鿡,
̵  ..ȭ.dz .Ҹ  ֱ 
 ϴ anitya. ·п ϸ ڿ ..ȭ.dz
ϴ  4  ְ,  ڵ鵵 
  ־  ٸٰ Ѵ.  akasa ڷ Ǿ
 ʴ. ·п ϸ ü  Ƿ ũ
Ÿ  ־ ϴµ,  ׷ Ƿ 
  . ׷ Ҹ  ؾ ϴ  üμ
 簡 ߸Ǿ   ִ ̶ Ѵ. ð kala 
dis      ߸ ƴ üμ,
 ϳ̸ ϰ  Ϳ ϴ ̴.  ð
츮 ..̷..  νϴ ٰŷμ,
߸ȴ.  ð       
ü 츮 νĿ  ִ  ǵ upadhi
 ټ κ  ó  Ͽٰ Ѵ.
  ̶     ̶ 
,  ϳ  ġ κ  νĵȴٴ
̴.
  ھ atman Ȥ ȥ 츮 ǽ عٴ ̷
üμ ϰ ̴. ȥ οȥ jivatman ְ
ȥ paratman,   Isvara   ִ.  ϳ̸
 âڷμ ߸Ǵ ̴(  öп
ٷ ).   ȥμ   κ
ο ̴. οȥ ϳ ƴ϶ , ׵ 
   ٸ Ư  ִٰ Ѵ. οȥ
DZ manas Ǿ  ʴ´ٸ  Ű  
κ ο  Ѵ. ȥ , , ,
     µ ϴ üμ, '
ȴ', ' Ѵ'  ǥκ 츮 ھư ǽ
ϰ Ǵ  ü    ִٰ . ׷ ·ö
Ű߳ Ÿöа ޸  cit ȥ  
 ʰ 쿬  Ѵ.   츮 
 ¿   츮 ȥ   
ʴ´ٰ Ѵ.
   ·ö DZ manas̶   ü
Ѵ. DZ 츮   antarindriyaμ, ·п
ϸ 츮     ϵ
ȥ  µ    ϴ  
 ־߸ Ѵٴ ̴. ̰ ٷ DZ ̴.
 츮 ھƴ   Ͽ ܰ 繰 ϸ
DZ̶   Ͽ ڽ µ νѴٴ
̴.  츮   ׽  
ϰ  ұϰ,   ÿ   ʴ
 츮 Ȱ   ϳ ϴ  
ֱ ̶ Ѵ. ̰ DZ μ, ̶ DZ
ǰ  ؼ   ߸ μ
ϴٴ ̴. DZ  Ͽ   
ھƿ ̿ ġϴ μ, װ Ͽ ھƴ 
 ϸ ν ϴ ̴. ׸ DZ  ̼
ڿ Ƽ ƹ κ    ϰ 
 Ѵ. ࿡  κ  ִٸ, װ Ȱ
ȭ   츮   ÿ   ְ 
̱ ̴. 츮  ھƴ  DZٰ ϰ 
 DZ 츮 ھƿ ü οϴ ̶ Ѵ.
DZ ȸ  Ͽ ھƸ Ѵٰ Ѵ.
  ݱ 츮 ·ö 6  ü dravya 
캸Ҵ. ·ö ° ִ  guna̴.  
ü Ͽ ϸ  ü ƹ ̳ 
  ʴ.   繰 ̳  
 , װ ʹ ϴ.  ʹ ޸ 
ü  ʴ ̰,  Ӽ̴. · 
⺻  24(, , ,  ) зϰ 
   Ͽ  ⼭ Ѵ.
· ° ַ , Ȥ  karma . 
  ü    ϳ,
 ޸ ü ڽ   Ÿ ü ϰų
 ϴ  Ǵ ̴.     
 ʴ. ֳϸ  ü ϱ ̴. ׸
, ð, ̳ ȥ    ü  
 .  ѵ ü ü,   , ȭ, dz, DZٿ
 ϴٰ . ֳϸ ׷   ġ
ٲٴ  Ұϱ ̴. ·  ټ з
ϴµ  utksepana,  avaksepana,  akuncana,  prasarana,
 gamana ̴.
׹° ִ  samanya̴. ,  繰 ٸ ̸
ƴ  ̸ θ ϴ ٰŰ Ǵ ̰ 
縦 Ѵ.  ؿʹ ޸ ·п ϸ 
ܼ 츮  θ ϴ  ƴ϶ 
繰 ϴ ̴.   ϸ ׵ 
뼺  ,    ȴ.   
   ,   satta 5   ,
 ̼  Ϸ 繰 ȿ ѵ , ׸  ʰ
  ,   ü dravyata5)  
еȴ.  ü Ӽ  ֿ Ѵ.
   繰 뼺  ִ ӿ Ͽ ·
5°  Ư κ  ʴ  ü ,
ð, , , DZ, ȥ,   ñ Ư Ȥ
 ϴ ̴. κ  ִ 繰 
κе ̿ Ͽ  , κ  ü
̴ ׵  ִ  Ư Ͽ߸  ȴٰ
Ѵ.  Ư  ü ӿ ϹǷ  ü
ϴٰ Ѵ.
   ·ö  samavaya  缺 Ѵ.
·п 繰 繰 迡   ִٰ Ѵ.
ϳ  samyoga, conjunction̰ ٸ ϳ  samavaya,
inherence̴. ̶  繰 ٸ 繰  
 μ װ   繰   ִ. ̶
  ü  쿬  Ȥ Ӽ ֵȴ.
ݸ鿡   ̰ Ұи μ ü κ,
ü  , ϳ ٸ ϳ ȿ ʿ ϴ
 ̴.  ·п ϸ   , 
öп   ִٰ Ѵ.
  ̻     ܿ '·а' ޵Ǿ 
 10  ·ö  ϰ°  Padartha
μ  abhava  ִ.   ʴ´ٴ 
     ̶ ̴. 츮 İ  pada
 artha ְ ̸  İ  
ϹǷ ̶ ͵  ƴ İ  
̶ ̴. ·ö     Ѵ.
ù°  pragabhava,   繰   ̴.
° ĺ pradhvamsabhava,  繰 ĸ  ̸,
° ȣ anyonyabhava,   繰 ٸ  繰
 ν ̴. °  atyantabhava, 
'䳢 ', ' '   ̴.  ٸ
 繰   ̰, ĺ ٸ  繰
 ̰, ȣ ϸ 繰   ̸
 ٸ  繰 ׻ 𿡼   ְ
ȴٴ ո  ʷ ̶ Ѵ.
  ̹  ٿ , ·ö ̻  7 ֵ
 ˾ƾ ϴ    padartha  ̴.
׵  7  ϰ ִ μ, ·ö
 ַп Ͽ پ   ľϰ ִ ٿ
 ö̴. Űö ̳̿ Ÿö
Ͽ   ̰ ִ ̴.

  5)  , ʵ ̷ η ̴.

  3  Ұ߷, Ż
  ·öе ε    ֱ â ü
޾Ƶδ. ڵ հ ü Ͽ  âǰ
üǴ ̴. ʱ ·л  縦  
ϳ Ŀ ͼ    ϱ Ͽ 
縦 ޾Ƶ鿴.6)   հ ü ͸̰
쿬  ƴ϶    Mahesvara  â
ı ٴ ̴.     Ͽ
'Ұ߷ adrsta'̶ Ҹ οȥ  ʴ
   ׵鿡 մ  ϵ ڵ 
Ѵٴ ̴.    ڵ â ʾ
 Ῡ ͸ ڵ  Ģ  ̵
Ѵٴ ̴.    ɵ̸ 
ƴϴ. ·öп    ڴ  üμ 
  ʴٰ ϸ,   ȥ ȿ ϰ ִ
Ұ߷¿ Ͽ  ޵ȴٰ Ѵ. ׷  Ұ߷
 ü   ͸ ̱ , ᱹ 
 ־ ڵ  Ģ  ؾ Ѵٴ
̴. ̷  ڷп ԰ ·ö öпó
   ʰ ε Ϲ   
ϴ ŷ ڷ  ̴.
  ε ٸ  ĵ  ·öе ھ ع濡
 ǥ ΰ ִ. ھ ع̶ ھư ƹ Ӽ̳
  ʰ ϰ  üμ ϸ, 
 ȿ   ʷϴ  Ұ߷µ  
ʰ  ¸ Ѵ. ׷ ؼ 켱 ·öп 
ùٸ  ʿϴٰ Ѵ.   ھ ̳ 
̷  ٷ ˸, ̷  츮  ̱ 
 ϰ ȴٰ Ѵ. ·ö ΰ  ڹ
Ͱ ڹ ƴ  ϸ, ڹ  
 dvesa ٰ μ, ̰͸  ǹ̸ Ѵٰ
Ѵ. Ż̶ ̷ ڹ   ļ ο
   ʰ ſ  
 Ͽ   ̴. ̷ ¿ ھƴ
ƹ ̳ ̳   ʰ  ǽĵ 
° ȴ.  Ӽ  üμ ھư  üμ
  ̴.
  ·ö νķ ,   pratyaksa , 
߷    Ÿ  Ѵ.  
 ó ٸ ϳ  Ÿ 
  ʴ´. ֳϸ ٿ Ÿ 
Ÿ缺  ڵ  κ ߷е ̱
̴.  ( , ĥ) ߷   ֵȴ.

  6) ŸĴ 'ǹ' ó иϰ 踦 âϰ
ıϴ  Mahesvara  Ÿ ,  پ߳
ٶ  ּ  ŷ   ε巯 Ǿ.

  *
  Bhaduri, S., Studies in Nyaya-Vaisesika Metaphysics. Poona, 1947.
  Chatterji, J., Hindu Realism. Allahabad, 1912.
  Gough, A.E., trans., The Vaisesika Sutras of Kanada. Benares,1873.
  Faddegon, B., The Vaicesika System. Amsterdam, 1918.
  Handt, W., Die Atomische Grundlage der Vaisesikaphilosophie. Rostock,
1900.
  Keith, A.B., Indian Logic and Atomism. Oxford, 1921.
  Mishra, U., Conception of Matter according to Nyaya-Vaisesika.
Allahabad, 1936.
  Patti, G., Der Samavaya. Roma, 1953.
  Potter, K,H., ed., Indian Metaphysics and Epistemology: The
Tradition of Nyaya-Vaisesika up to Gangesa. Prinecton, 1977.
  Roer, E., trans., "Vaisheshika-Sutra", Zeitschrift der Deutschen
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft 21 (1867).
  Sinha, J., Indian Realism. London, 1938.
  Ui, H., trans., and F.W. Thomas, ed., The Vaisesika Philosoph
according to the Dasopadartha-sastra: Chinese Test with Introduction,
Translation, and Notes. London, 1917.
  , 'εöп', , 3.





  9  ö

  1 ö 

   Nyaya öü  Ÿ Gautama Ȥ
 Aksapada̶   Ǿٰ Ѵ.  Ȯ
    뷫 ± 1-2  Ǹ,
 ' Nyaya-sutra'  2濡  
ֵǰ ִ. ''  ϴ ߿  
Ǹ ִ  ߳ Vatsyayana(450-500)
 ' Nyaya-bhasya'̸,  Ҵ  ó ̸
 ٸ ּ Ҵ.  '' 2 Ŀ
ٰ ϳ, ùٸ  ¿   ߽
ϴ    ξ  ָ ұ޵ȴٰ   ִ. 
nyaya  Ƹ  ٽô Ŀ  Ҿ
Ǿ  ùٸ Թ ߸س ϴ  ǹߴ.
õ, ,    ε  й  
ʷ Ͽ  Ͱ  е   
õǾ ̴. ׷ ߿ ̸ Mimamsaİ 
  ٷ뿡   й Ϲ 
߻ ٷ ij  ϰ  ̴. 
ٸ ̸  tarka Ȥ ɱ anviksiki Ҹ.
츮 'Ÿ Gautamadharma-sutra', ' Manavadharma-
sastra', īƿ Kautilya 'Ǹ Artha-sastra' 
빮鿡 ׷ й ΰ ġ   ؼ
ǰ  ߰  ִ.
  ߳ ''  ּ   ߿ 
6  ʹī Uddyotakara ؼ  '
Nyaya-varttika'μ ʹī ұ ģ Vasubandhu 
Dignaga  и ˰ ־ ׵ ݹϰ ִ. 
 300Ⱓ  μ ̷    
   ŸŸ Santaraksita ī󽯶 Kamaasila
 8 ұöڵ  Ͽ   
 ظ   ִ.  ö ߿
ιδ εϺ ī̸  ϻ縣
Bhasarvajna(850-920 A.D.) ִ.   ' Nyayasara'
ö   ִ ǥ ̰  '
Nyayabhusana' ''  ּμ  
   Ǿ Դ ̴. ֱٿ μ ߰ߵǾ
а   ִ.1) öлӸ ƴ϶ ٸ
 ĵ öп ǥ   Ƽ̽
Vacaspatimisra(9)2) ʹī ''  ּ
' Nyayavarttika-tatparyatika' , پ߳
Udayana(1050-1100)  ֿ  ַμ 'ظ'
. پ߳  
ڵ鿡 Ͽ  ·ö   öڷμ ֵǰ
ִ.  ٸ  'ھк Atmatattvaviveka' ұ
Ƽ  μ ھ 縦 ϰ , 
' ȭ Nyayakusumanjali' ľ-̽ī öп ־
       ִ. پ߳
ö  ľ-̽ī ĸ dzϴٰ 14⿡ ͼ
Ի Gangesa Ͽ ' Tattvacintamani'
м Ἥ   Navya-nyaya ʸ ߴ.
 ַ ٷӰ    
ϴ ijķμ ⼭ ٷ ʱ Ѵ.

  1)Karl H.Potter, ed. Indian Metaphysics and Epistemology. (New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1977), pp.6, 410-24 .
  2) Vacaspatimisra 뿡 ؼ, , pp.453-4 .

  2  ǹ̿ 
  '' ö ٷ   16 зϿ
ϰ ִ.
      pramana,   ҷ prameya,
Ȯ ǽ  Ȥ samsaya, ǰ ϰų Ϸ
 prayojana, ߸  Ǵ   drstanta, Ǵٰ
޾Ƶ̴  siddhanta, ߸ 5 ܰ踦 ϴ 
  avayava,     tarka,  Ǹ
Ͽ  Ȯ μ  Nirnaya, ν ܰ
  Ͽ  Ϸ  vada, ¸
ϻ   jalpa,  ĸ  ϴ 
vitanda, ߸ ־ Ÿ  ̳  Ʋ 
hetvabhasa,  ̳  ְ ϴ ⺯
chala,  ȥŰ δ   jati, £ ־
 ϰ   Ȥ ó nigraha-sthana̴.
  ̻󿡼   ִ ٿ , ö ֿ ɻ 
ٵ νİ     ִ. ·öп
ϴ 7 ִ  2° ,   prameya Ǹ,
ö  ҷٴ  pramana    ̴
ö̴.
  ö  jnana  upalabdhi,(Ȥ anubhava; apprehen-
sion) ϸ,    ó Ÿ arthaprakaso-
buddhi̶ Ѵ.  ھư ھư ƴѰ,  
   μ, ھ  ǰ ƴϴ. Ÿ
 prama  ִ ״ ϴ  yathartha-anubhava̸,
  ġ Ѵ. ùٸ ν  
pravrtti-samarthya ̲, ׸ ν п Ǹ
ٰ̲ Ѵ. öп ϸ ν ǰ ׸ ڸ ̰ų
Ȥ  ü  ִ  ǰ ƴ϶, ϴ 
  Ŀ  ġ ġ   ˷
Ǵ ̴.   Ͽ    ġ̰,
    ̴.  νķ
 ̰ ǿ̶   ִ.
  ö Ÿ  prama  pramanaμ  Ȥ
 pratyaksa; perception,  Ȥ ߷ anumana; inference, 
Ȥ  upamana; comparison, ׸  Ȥ  sabda;
testimony Ѵ. ̵ Ͽ     Ȯϰ
   ̸, ǽ samsaya,  viparyaya,
  tarka Ȥ  smrti Ͽ  Ÿġ  
aprama ؾ Ѵ. ǽ̶ Ȯġ  μ Ÿ
  Ǹ,  Ȯ    ġ
 ̴.  Ķ   '࿡  
Ⱑ   ̴'   μ ڱⰡ ̹
߷,  'Ⱑ ϱ  ִ' ߸ Ͽ  
ȣϷ   ִ. ׷ ̰ ο 
 ִ  ƴϴ. ' ִ'  ߷ Ͽ
̹ ˰ ֱ ̴.   Ĵ Ÿ 
ȴٰ Ѵ. ̶     ʰ
 ſ    ֱ  Ÿ
 ֵ ʴ´.  װ  Ÿ  
ִ Ȥ ׷ Ŀ   ü Ÿ  
ְ ׷    ִ. öп ϴ Ÿ
̶ ̹    ִ ״  anubhavaϴ
μ, £   İ Ǵ ̴. Ÿ
 prama̶  ߷а 񱳿  4 pramana
   ̴. ׷   4 
ϳϳ  .

  3  ̷
  ö  pratyaksa   Ѵ. ϳ 
laukika ̿, ٸ ϳ Ư alaukika̴.  
츮   ˿  ٿ  Ѵ.
츮   Ƿ     ִ.
 , , , ,  ټ   bahyaindriya
  ˿  ð caksusa, û
srauta, İghranaja, ̰ rasana, ˰ sparsana ְ, °
μ  manas;,  DZ̶  
antarindriya Ͽ ھ  µ,  , , ,
,   ϴ  manasa  ִ.  
 ׵鿡 Ͽ Ǵ   ҵ
Ǿ ִٰ Ѵ. DZ manas   bhuta鿡 Ͽ
Ǿ    ɿ ־  ó 
  繰 νĿ ѵǾ  ʰ   Ŀ
̰ ߽  Ѵ. öп   
츮      ݵ DZ 
  ϰ ־ Ѵٰ Ѵ.  ׷ ؼ
DZ νü ھ atman ˵Ǿ Ѵ. ٽ Ͽ
DZ ھƿ   ߰ڿ  μ, DZٰ
 Ͽ   ھƿ λ  ̴.
  ھ  Ȥ Ӽ ̴.
  ö   ܰ Ȥ  ¸ Ѵ. 
к к̴.
к ̶     ݿ
 ƹ ǽ̳ Ǵ  ϴ ε Ͽ, к
   ݿ  ǽİ Ǵ  ϴ
 Ѵ. к  к  Ŀ ̷
̶ Ѵ. ö ν re-cognition, 
   ߴ  ϴ ͵   
 Ѵ.
  Ư alaukika ̶   Ư ̾  
޸ Ư  Ͽ  ־ ̴. ö
̷ Ư 3  ִ. ù°  ̴.
̶     Ȥ 
ϴ μ    Ͽ 츮 ѷ  Ư
繰  ִ Ϲ    ְ
ȴٴ ̴. öп ϸ  Ư ȿ ϰ ִ
̴.3)  繰  츮 Ư  Ӹ
ƴ϶ ̿ Ҿ Ư  ִ   
Ѵٴ ̴.  ,     츮  
Ư ̳ ǰ ϴ  ƴ϶   ȿ Ͽ
ִ ΰ Ϲݵ Ư Ͽ   ִٴ ̴.
ι°  Ư   ̴.
츮  ' ſ δ' Ȥ '  δ'
  '̴', ''  Ǵ  ƴϳ
׷ Ѵ. ̷  ſ     Ű
Ͽ   ٰ  μ  Ư̶
Ѵ. ° ö 䰡  yogabhyasa Ͽ
 ¿ ٰϿ ſ ̷ 繰, Ȥ Ư¡ϰų
 ͵  ϴ  Ư  ִ.
䰡  yogaja  ̴.

  3)ö  Ӽ   繰 Ͽ ϴ
   jati 츮  Ͽ ΰ  upadhi,   ʴ
  Ͱ Ѵ.

  4 ߷ 
  ö ι° ν μ ߷ anumana  ִ.
߷п  ̷ ö νķп ־  ߿
ġ ϰ ִ μ ö ߷ Ÿ缺 ȣϱ
Ͽ   ￴.
  ߷̶ 츮     ǥ¡ linga 
 ǥ¡  ֿ vyapti  ִ ٸ  
 ˰ Ǵ  Ѵ.  , '꿡  
ִ. ֳϸ Ⱑ  ֱ ̸; Ⱑ ִ 
 ֱ ̴'  ̴.   ǥ¡ 
 縦 ߸ϰ Ǵ ̴.  ߸ ־  Ҹ
 , ǥ¡Ǵ 
߸ linga, middle term ϸ,  ߸ Ҹ 縦
 ִ μ  hetu θ.   
츮 ȥڼ ߸  ϴ ں svartha-anumana
 ״ Ÿ μ, Ÿ Ͽ  ߷
ϴ Ÿ parartha-anumana 쿡   ټ
 ߾ Ѵ(۹)
  1 ,   -꿡  ִ.
  2 ,   -Ⱑ  ̴.
  3 ?,   -Ⱑ     ִ; 
 Ʊ̿ó.
  4 ,   - 꿡 Ⱑ .
  5 ,   -׷  꿡  ִ.4)
  ̷ ߸    κ θ ʿ䵵 ,
'Ⱑ    ִ'  ̴. ֳϸ
̰  ȵǸ, ' 꿡  ִ'  ߸
Ÿ缺 Ұ DZ ̴. 츮 ̹ íī Carvaka
ȸǷ ö ٷ    Ƿ ߸ ν
 ޾Ƶ ʾҴٴ  Ҵ. ö  

4) Aristoteles 3ܷй 3,    峪, Nyaya
  öп к  . Ȥ Aristoteles 3  1
  2  ̶   ִ.

Ͽ ߸ ٰſ ߸ ϰ ϴ ٿ
Ʋ ֿ踦 Ϸ õ Ѵ. ׷ 켱
öп ϴ   ֿ  
ϰ   ʿ䰡 ִ.5) ֿ  繰  繰
ٸ 繰 Ͽ   Ǵ ȣ踦 Ѵ.
ȴٴ   繰 ٸ 繰 Ͽ  ݵȴٴ°
Ѵ.  ,  ⿡ ׽ ϹǷ  ⸦
ϴ  vyapaka̸  ҿ Ͽ Ǵ  vyapya̴.
׷  ݵ ҿ Ͽ   ⿡ Ͽ
ݵ Ǵ  ƴϴ.  , ҵ ö
Ⱑ   ᰡ Ż  Ⱑ  ʴ´.  
 ȣ  ǿ ϴ ̱ ̴.
 ̰ ֿ θ ʴ´.   繰
ٸ 繰 ׽  ϴ 츸  
Ѵ. ̿  A B ݵ ϳ B A ݵ
 ʴ  A B 踦 εֿ
θ. ̿ Ͽ ڰ ݵ  ϰ Ǵ
 踦 ֿ Ѵ.  ,
' ̸   ִ 繰   ִ 繰̴'  
'̸   ִ ' '  ִ ' ֿ踦
̷ ִ ̴.
    ׷ٸ 츮   ֿ踦  
ִ° ̴.  Ұ   ŷκ
Ǿ  鿡 ǰ ͳ߸ ٰϰ ִٰ ö
Ѵ. öп    ͳ߸ 4 
Ȥ  Ѿ߸ Ѵ. ù° 翬 anvaya̴.
翬̶ A(:)  ݵ B(:) ִٴ
ݰ踦 Ȯ ν  ̴. ° 

5) ⼭ ֿ п  ϴ   
   踦 Ÿ  ƴ϶ 繰 繰 踦
  Īϴ μ,    ִ.

vyatireka̴.  B  ݵ A ٴ  Ȯϴ
迡  ̴. ° ιݷ vyabhicaragraha̴. 
A ִµ B   찡 ٴ  Ȯϴ ̴.
ͳ߸ °  ֿ Ǽ upadhinirasa
Ȯϴ ̴.  , Ұ  踦 ٰ
ȲϿ   Ͽ Ⱑ ߻ϴ    
ʴ° Ȯϴ ̴.
  ׷ ̻  4   ļ  ͳ ̶
 ǽ    ִٴ  ö
Ѵ. íī Carvaka  ȸǴ ٷ   ǽϴ
̴.      A B ̿ ֿ谡
־   ̳ ̷ ׷ 谡 ȴٴ
 ٴ ̴. ⼭ ö   
Ͽ ͳ߸ ֿ vyapti Ÿ缺,  ߷ anumana
Ÿ缺 ޹ħϷ Ѵ. ù°   tarka ̴.
  ֿ踦     ո
Ͽ ֿ踦  Ϸ ̴.  ,
࿡ 'Ⱑ    ִ' ֿ踦 Ѵٸ
  Ⱑ   ִٴ   Ǹ ̰
     ִٴ ո  ǹǷ
 һ ֿ Ǿ߸ Ѵٴ ̴. ֿ踦
޹ħϴ ٸ ϳ ̷ Ŀ ֱϴ Ư 
ϳ   samanyalaksana-pratyaksa ٰϰ ִ.
 ̷п    ͳ  ܼ  ʵ
Ͽ ̸ Ϲȭ  ƴ϶,  繰  saman-
yalaksana  Ͽ  繰  ü  ־ٴ
ǿ ԰ ̶ ̴.  ,  Ұ
ֿ   ü    ⼺̶
 ε   Ұ 谡 ȴٴ
̴. ٽ ϸ   ϹǷ Ⱑ 
Ұ Ǿ    ִٴ ̴. ̷ Ư
Ͽ ͳ  ȴٰ Ѵ.  ͳ ̶
  ׷ϴϱ ΰ ׷ϴٰ ϴ  ƴ϶,
 繰 ϰ ִ   ? Ͽ 
ü κ Ϲ   ߸ ̴.
  ̻󿡼 츮 ö ߸  ̷ ߴ. 
߷  Ѵ. 츮 ̹  
ܰ߷ ͳ  Ѵ ϰ ִ.  ö
߷ ͳ   ʰ  ֿ vyapti
ݿ   . ù° ̴ κ 
ʴ  ߸ϴ  purvavat ߸̰, ° ̴
κ  ʴ  ߸ϴ  sesavat߸̸,
° 谡 ΰ     ߸̴.
   ޸    ߱ ߸ϴ Ͱ 
  츦    Ϲ ̼ ԰
 analogical ߸ Ѵ.

  5 񱳿 
  ´  °  ö  upamana,
comparison̶   ִ. ̶  ̸  ̸
  繰 踦 ˰ ϴ  μ, ٺ
񱳳 ߿ ǰϰ ִ. ſ    ̸
˰ ִ  繰  繰  翡 ǰϿ ˰ Ǵ°
̶ Ѵ. ұö    
ȯŰ, а ·ö ߷п ȯŴν ϳ
 ν   ʴ´.
   ö , Ȥ  sabda, testimony
ν   ִ. 'Sabda' Ҹ ̸ ö
νķп ַ    ̳  ǹ̸ ν
  ǹѴ.    Ȥ  
  drstartha Ұ  adrstartha  
ϱ⵵ ϰ, Ȥ ֱ ̳Ŀ   vaidikaΰ,
   μ ٿ,  ɼ ִ
ΰ   laukika  ϱ⵵ Ѵ. ·ö
   ϳ  ν   ʰ
߷   Ѵ.
  ̶ ٸ   ̳  ǹ̸ Կ
  ϹǷ, ö ڿ ǹ̷п  
.   ǹ̿ ,     ̷
״ ̴. öп ϸ ̶  pada 
   迭ʿ Ѵٰ ϸ, ̶ ڵ
   迭 ̶ Ѵ.   
ǹ,  װ Īϴ      ׽
Ǿ ־ ϳ  ݵ   ǹϰԲ
Ǿ ִٰ Ѵ. ö    ư   
  ǹ  ִ  ׵   sakti, potency
 ϰ ֱ ̶ Ѵ. ׸    
ñ ̸ ְ  ſ  ̶ Ѵ. ̷
 Ͽ ö   Ͽ ܼ
ȸ  ôѴٴ    ִ.
   ǹ̰ װ Īϴ  ִٰ   ,
̶  Īϴ°, ƴϸ  Ӽ jati ü Ű°
 ȴ. ö ü   Ͽ ̶
 Īϵ    Ӽ ϰ ִٰ
Ѵ. ׷  츮 ϳ  μ  
 Ī  ִٰ Ѵ.6)
  öп ϸ ̶   ǹ̸  յ
̴.  ǹ̸   Կ ־ 4
 Ѿ ȴٰ Ѵ. ù°   
θ ϰų ʿ ϴ Ư akanksa  Ѵ. 
__________
6)  ̹  Ͽ B.K.Matilal Epistemology, Logic,
and Grammar (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 62~77 .

, ''  μ ''̶ 
ʿ ϴ ̴. ° ռ yogyata̴. ռ̶  
ȿ ִ  ̿  ־ ȵȴٴ ̴. 
, 'ҷ þ'  ǹ̸   ٴ ̴.
°  samnidhi̴.    ȿ  ִ 
ð Ȥ      ־߸ ǹ̸
  ִٴ ̴.  ϴ   ð
 ־ ǹ̸   ְ ׷  忡 
 ־ ϴ ̴. ׹°,  ̶ 
쿡  ٸ  ϹǷ  صǷ ѻ
 tatparya ˷߸ Ѵٴ ̴. ΰ鿡 
  쿡   prakarana Ƽ ǵ  
,   ̸ MimamsaĿ ϴ ?
Ģ鿡 Ͽ    ִٰ Ѵ. ̻  ǹ̷
Ͽ ö  sabda   Ÿ缺 ޹ħϰ
ִ ̴.   ̶  ǹ̸ ν
 ̱ ̴.
  ̻   Ÿ  鿡 Ͽ ö 質
ΰ̳ ſ    ȴٰ Ѵ.  
 ؼ ö ·öа 뵿 ظ Ƿ
ΰ ſ  ö ̻ ظ  
 Ѵ.

  6 ھ, , Ż
  öп ϴ ΰ ھ atman ξ jivatmanμ
ν, ǽ, ,       ϴ¹
 ü̸, ̳ DZ manas̳  ٸ.
ھƴ ұöпó ׽ ϴ   
帧 ֵ  ٰ Ѵ. ֳϸ ׷ٸ ̶
 Ұϰ DZ ̴.  ̷ Ÿöп
ֱϴ ó ھƴ   ϴ svayamprakasaka
ǽ cit ƴ϶ Ѵ. ö  ü 
ʰ,  󿡵  ʴ ǽ 縦 
Ѵ. ھƶ ǽ ü ƴ϶, ǽ̶  Ӽ
 ִ ü̴. ھƴ  ν ü,  ü,
 ? bhoktr̸ ȸ 迡  ް Ǵ 
̴. ׷ ھ  ü ƹ νȰ  ʴ´.
 DZ manas 踦 ΰ ִ ѿ ν  ̴.
  ھ  Ÿ  Ͽ ˵ Ȥ  ߷п
Ͽ   ִٰ Ѵ.  , ??, νĵ  
  £ ϰ  ̶ ̳ DZ̳
      ױ ȥ 縦
 ְ ִٴ ̴. ı öڵ  ھư 
 DZٿ Ͽ    ִٰ Ѵ. , DZ
ھƸ  Ͽ  ھǽ   ִٴ ̴.
׷  ڵ ̷ ھ  ü 
ɼ ϰ ھƴ ׽    
Ҿ ׷ ¸  üμ νĵȴٰ Ѵ. '
ȴ', ' ູϴ'  Ǵܿ '' شϴ μ
νĵȴٴ ̴.  Ÿ ھƴ   Ȥ
ǵ ü κ ߸Ͽ   ִٰ Ѵ. ֳϸ
̷ ǵ   ü Ͽ Ͽ
  ǽ ھư ־߸ ϱ ̴.
  öп ־ Ż  ̻  ھ ؿ
ȴ. öп ϴ Ż̶  κ ع
apavarga ǹϸ, ̰ ھư ƴ ͵,   
 κ    ϴٰ Ѵ. 
κ  ع ھ Ƽ öп ϸ
Ӹ ƴ϶  ſ̳ ູ  ʴ ̴.
ƹ ̳ ǽ   ̴. ھƴ  ü
 ִ  ƴϱ ̴. ׷ ı ö 󰡵
Ż  κ عӸ ƴ϶,  ູ
 ߴ. Ƹ Ÿö    ֵȴ.
Ż  Ͽ ٵ ھư ̳ ̳
DZٰ ٸ    ˾ƾ ϸ, ׷ Ͽ
켱 ھƿ  ,   ħ ͸ ← ϸ
sravana, ׻ װͿ Ͽ ؾ ϸ manana, 䰡 
 ؾ Ѵ nididhyasana. ׸ ھƿ  ױߵ
 mithya-jnana  ھƴ  浿 踦 
ʰ ǰ  karma Ͽ   Ƿ, ᱹ ȸ
迡 ٽ ¾ ٴ ̴.
  ö ΰ  ھƿܿ  â  ı
ְ Ǵ  縦 Ѵ.7)  踦  âϰų
ڱڽκ ϴ 簡 ƴ϶, ̹ ϰ ִ
 ڵ, , ð, , DZٵ   
ְ ǹִ  ϰ ϴ ̴.  
  upadana-karana ƴ϶ ɵ nimitta-karana
̴. ״  踦  ʿ䰡   ıϱ⵵
ϴ ̴.  ϰ ϸ  ̴. ״
 ǽ   ǽ   ƴ϶ Ӽ̶
. Ÿö ؿ ٺ ̸ ̰ ִ. 
 ɵμ   ü  Ѵ.
 ΰ   ο    εϿ
Ͽ ̴. ΰ ڱ  ɵ  instrumental
cause̳  ΰ ɵ  prayojaka-kartr̴.
öڵ ̷  翡 ؼ   
޹ħϰ ִ.     翡  
̴.    karyaμ  Ǵ âڰ ִ.
󰣿 ߰ߵǴ   ȭ   ɵ
__________
7) .·ö ʱ󿡼   Ȯ ġ
   ʰ  ı⿡ ͼ и ŷ  .

μ  縦 ʿ Ѵ. ڵ ٺ ͸̰
 ʴ ͵̳,  ڵ鿡  ϸ
Ѵ.  ʷ     ǹϵ ϴ 
  ڴ ̴.  ?    
 Ǵ ڷμ ٴ  縦 ϰ ִ.
츮 κ Ұ߷̶ Ҹ  Ű 
ȴ. ׷  Ұ߷ ü  ῩǾ Ƿ ְ
   ε ־߸ 츮   װͿ
մ  ŵΰ ȴٴ  ̴.

  *
Bhattacharya, G., Studies in Nyaya-Vaisesika Theism.
Bulcke, C. The Theism of Nyaya-Vaisesika. Calcutta, 1947.
Chatterjee, S.C., Nyaya Theory of Knowledge. 2nd ed. Calcutta,1950.
Chemparathy, G., An Indian Rational Theology: Introduction to
  Udayana's Nyayakusumanjali. Vienna, 1972.
Cowell, E.B., trans., Udayana's Kusumanjali, with the Commentary
  of Hari Dasa Bhattacarya. Calcutta, 1864.
Ingalls, D.H.H., Materials for the Study of Navya-Nyaya. Harvard
  Oriental Series, Vol. 40. Cambridge, 1951.
Jacobi, H., "Indische Logik," Nachrichten der Gottinger Gesellschaft
der Wissenschaften. Gottingen, 1901.
Jha, G., trans., The Nyaya-Sutras of Gautama with Vatsyayana's
  Bhasya and Uddyotakara's Varttika. Indian Thought Series 7,9,12.
  poona, 1939.
_____, trans, The Tarkabhasa (by Kesavamisra), or Exposition of
  Reasoning. Poona, 1924.
Keith, A.B., Indian Logic and Atomism. Oxford, 1921.
Matilal, B.K., Nyaya-Vaisesika. Wiesbaden, 1977.
Matilal, B.K., Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar in Indian Philo-
  sophical Analysis. The Hague, Paris, 1971.
Potter, K.H., ed., Indian Metaphysics and Epistemology. Princeton,
  1977.
Randle, H.N., Indian Logic in the Early Schools. Oxford, 1930.
Ruben, W., Zur Indischen Erkenntnis Theorie: Die Lehre von der
  Wahrnehmung nach den Nyayasutras. Leipzing. 1926.
_____, trans., Die Nyaya-Sutras. Leipzing, 1928.
Sastri, S.K., A Primer of Indian Logic according to Annambhatta's
Tarkasamgraha. Madras, 1932.
Spitzer, M., Begriffsuntersuchungen zum Nyaya-bhasya. Kiel, 1926.
Vidhyabhusana, S.C., A History of Indian Logic. Calcutta, 1921.
_____, trans., The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama. Allahabad, 1930.

  10 ºұ 

  1 ºұ 
  ºұ Mahayana   Ͽ  Һи
   ִ. ºұ ߻ ô , ºҷ
ҽ Hinayana ĺұ , ºұ   
 ⺻   ڵ   
ǰ ִ.
  ± 2 Ĺݿ  Kusanaκ ѿ  ó?
° ߿ 'ݾ߻̰' '' 'ݾ߰' '' 
ߴ. ̷  츮 ׶ ºұ 
ǰ ־ Ȯ   ִ.  ̵ 
DZ ð ϸ ºұ ߻  ݱ
1 ұ   ̴. ݾ߰ ߿  
 ޾ ݾ߰(ǰݾ) Astasahasrika-prajnapa-
ramita-sutra '?? Mahayana'̶   ,
?? Aksobhya Euddha  žӵ Ÿ ִ.  ó?
 '?̰' ?? Amitabha Buddha žӵ
߰ߵȴ. ̷ ǵκ ̷  츮  ?
 žӰ ݾ prajna  ϴ ºұ 
± Ŀ ̹ ȮǾ ־   ִ ̴.
  ' Mahayana'̶  'ū ' μ ºұ
ħ  ߻ ?   ִ ū  ٴ
̴. ݸ鿡 ºұ   ڵ  ұ
?'  ' ' ҷ װ Ⱑ¸ ַ  
ұ ߴ. ºұڵ ̳   Ʒ
  Ȱ  Ⱑµ  , ŵ
 翡 ұϰ ڱ ڽŵ鸸  ȸ ϴ
׵ ұ̰ ?? ⿡ ݹϿ, ߻
  ǥ  ο  ұ â ̴.
  ? ڽ  Ŀ ε  濡 ϸ鼭
߻   úұ Ⱑµ鵵 ׸ ޾
 ƴٴϸ ȭȰ . ٷ ̷ Ȱ ұ
ٿ ū Ȱ ߴ ̴. ׷ · samgha Ȱ 
ȭǰ    㿡  Ⱑµ
簡   κ  ־ Ǿ. ׵
 ϸ ? ?? ? ߱ϴ ? Ȱ
ϴ  簡 ׵鿡   dana ϰ
  punya  ͸ ؾ߸ ߴ ̴.
  punya  ͸ ؾ߸ ߴ ̴.
   Ȱ  Ͽ ߴ޵ 
abhidharma ұ ѰӰ ŷο ̷  ϻ ʿ
簡ڵ  ӿ 屸κ   ǰ  ̴.
  ºұ ̷  Ȳ  簡ڵ 
 Ͼ ̴. ºұڵ ڽ ͻӸ ƴ϶
 迡  ް ִ  ߻ ͵ǰ ϴ
Ÿ ϴ ൿ ұ âϰ Դ. ̷
 ̻   ǥ ִ  ?? ̴.
  ?? ??? bodhisattva ̸ ???  ?μ
? bodhi,   ߱ϴ  sattva, Ȥ '
 ϴ ' ̴.  ºұ ϴ
ο ̻ ΰμ  ҽ ̻ ? arhat
ڱ ͸  ̱  ôѴ.  ڽ
 ռ  Ѵٴ ڹ karuna  pranidhana
 ?? ߱ ʰ   迡 ¾⸦
Ѵ. ?? 簡ڳ Ⱑڸ ϰ ?? ϰ
bodhicittotpada ں   ڴ   õ  ִ
̾. ҽºұ ʰ ƶѰ  簡Ȱ
 Ⱑڷμ  ؾ߸ ߴ. ׷   
鿡   '' '  簡ڵ̾.
 ߿ Ⱑ 쵵  Ⱑ̶ 
ݵ 250 ô pratimoksa ޾ · Ͽ Ǵ 
ƴϾ.  ׵ Ȱδ 簡  ãƿ
? ̳ ǰ  ž̾. ׵  sila 
ܻȰ ϴ  vinaya  Ͱ δ.
 ҽºұ ̶ ξٵ Ϻ  
縦 ǹ    Ͽ  ̾߱
ǰ Ǿ. ҽ°  Jataka ٷ ̷ 
  Ÿ  鿡  ̾߱⸦ 
 ̴. ׷ ҽºұ ̶  ϺҰ
 Ư    ִ  ̵ ̵
 ߻μ      ̻
Ұߴ ̴. ̿ Ͽ ºұڵ ٷ ̷ 
̻ ȭϿ ֱ ޼  ִ  
׵ ñ ǥ ٸƴ Ϻ ̷ߴ Ͱ 
  ü ̴. Ƹ Ϻ ?̳ 
 츮  簡ڵ ڽ ߱ϴ  ̻ ̹
ݿ     ̴.
    ۾ƾ ϴ   ڿ ҽ° ޸
  ijд paramita,  6 'ϼ' Ȥ '?'
۴´.1)   dana, Ư sila, ? ksanti,  virya,
__________
1) 'Paramita' ܾ 'parama(ֻ,  )'̶ 
   parami+ta ؼDZ⵵ ϸ Ȥ param(?? )+i(ٴ
  )+taμ صDZ⵵ Ѵ. ѿ δ ڸ  Դ.
  '?', '', ƴϸ  'dz'̶ Ǿ.

? dhyana,  prajna̴. Ķд  ҽ 鿡
̹ ߰ߵȴ.  '??ҷ' ijдټ ϰ 
濡 ijдٸ ϰ ִ. ׷ ijдٸ
Ͽ Ȯ     ºұڵ鿡 ؼ.
ijд ߿ Ư ָ   dana ̴.
ö ҽºұ ַ 簡ڵ Ⱑµ鿡 ϴ
  ǹ ºұ װ  ڽ
õؾ  ù° ׸  ̴.   
ݾijдٷμ ¿ ݾ prajna ַ  '', 
ü  ݴ  ǹ . ̷  
ٰϿ  ټ Ķдٵ ùٸ ۾  ִٰ Ѵ.
׷  ºұ  ݾĶдٸ  
   ̴.
  ºұ  ϳ Ư¡ 쿡  ž̴. ºұ
ϸ      Ӹ ƴ϶ ɹ漼
 Ƽ Ȱϰ ִٰ Ѵ. ׵  θ Ͽ
  ʰ  迡  ϴ ߻
 Ͽ Ȱϰ ִٴ ̴. ҽºұ Ż̶
  ڱ   ϴ  Ÿ
ž ҿ  ̾. ׷ ºұ  
ں ϱ    Ǹ Ѿ ž
ұ ư  ̴.  Avalokitexvara, 뼼
Mahasthamaprapta,  Manjusri,  Samantabhadra
̷ ž  Ǿ ǥ ̴.
  ºұ һ ־ ū ȭ ʷߴ. ̶
 ϹȭǾ һ 䵵 ϹȭǾ \ʹ濡 
 һ簡 Ѵٰ ϴ´. ҽºұ һ ϸ
ٵ  Ϻ ǹߴ.  ҽºұ
 ĥ Ȥ ̽ʿ,  ̷ ?? Maitreya Buddha
   ƴϳ, ¿ó   Ϲȭ
ʾҴ. Ӹ ƴ϶ ҽ¿  ҵ  ݿ 
 ʹ ƹ   ʴ  صǴ
ݸ鿡, ¿   濡  Բ 
縦 ̷ ű⼭  Ȱϰ ִ  ֵȴ. 
ұ 󰡵 ̷ һ ȭ عħϱ Ͽ
һ ż trikaya ߴ.  һ翡 3  Ѵٴ
̴. ù° ȭ Ȥ  nirmanakayaμ ߻ ȭ
  ¾  һ縦 ǹѴ. ° 
sambhogakayaμ       Ͽ  μ
 ڿ  Ѵ. ?һ Amitabha Buddha 
  ̴. °  dharmakayaμ  ̴
 ʿϸ   ٰŰ Ǵ    ü
Ѵ.
  Ұ 鿡  žӰ Ҿ ڿ ֵ  ׵
ȭϿ Ϸ   Ǿ  һ 
۵ǰ Ǿ. Ư ߾ε  Mathura
 ε ٶ Gandhara ̷ һ ߽.
ٶ һ    Ż鿡 ߰ߵǴ
  ǥϰ ־ ˷ ķκ  濡
ߴ ȭ    ֵǰ ִ.
  ºұ ڵ  䱸 Ͽ   
̿ܿ һ ̳ ǰ  ž stupa  ̿,
 °? 赵 ߴ.   簡ڵμ
 ϱ  ɿ   ? ž ȿ ġϰ
ع ̴. ̿ Ҿ ? , ,  
ٸ  ͺ   punya   Ǿ.
 ̰ ̳ ȣ鸸   ִ Ž Ǹ̳
   Ϳ ϸ  ū   ڶ
   ִ μ,ºұ Ͼ ٽÿ Ȯ 
ȸ    ִ ҽ±ܿ   
ȸ  ݿϴ ε   ִ.
  ºұ  ̻   ž  Ͽ
    ڱڽŸ    ʰ
 ߻  Ͽ Ѱ شٴ  ȸ parinamana ൵
ߴ. ̰   Ģ   
ظ Ѿ μ ºұ ϴ ڹ 
ǥ ̴. Ƿ ̻     
ұ ϸ ξ   äӰ dzϸ,  
ǥϸ   ҽºұó ܷ  
   ̴.

  2  °
  ºұ ڵ ڿ ׵  ̻  
ϰ Ǿ. °鵵 Ļδ 'Ҽ Buddha-
vacana' Ǿ   ׵ Ϻ κ
 ̶  ƴ. ׷ ºұڵ ׵ 
  ʿ Ÿ   Ÿٰ Ͼ 
̷ 濡 'Ҽ'̶ θ  ִ ̴. ºұ 忡
ϸ Ÿ  ħ  ϳ ̳ ekayana
(Ͻ)    ó ɷ¿  ٸ ߴٴ
̴.  ° ٱ   
ֵǰ ִ ̴.
  °  ü ̱    ִ. 
± 1   л  Nagarjuna 
̴.   Ȯ    뷫 2 Ĺݿ
3 (150~250A.D.) ι ȴ. ׸ °
   '' Ͽ  ۵
ټ ° οϰ ֱ ̴.  E 
 °  οߴٰ    ׿ Ͽ
ο  Ȯ μ ֵǾ  ̴. 
 °  ֿ ͸  캸 Ѵ.
  1 '빫 Sukhavativyuha-sutra'
  ? Amitabha (Amitayus) Buddha  ž  .
ž  ջ ž  ǥ ǥμ  ºұ
ڵ ó Ǿ Դ. ''  'Amitayus'
  ' '̶ ̰, '빫'2) 
'Sukhavativyuha'  'ض '̶ ̴. ''
 ? Dharmakara̶  ߻ Ͽ 48 ??
   Ⱓ    Ͽ 濡 ִ
۶sukhavati 並 ̷ٴ  ڷ ϰ ִ. 
濡  ߿  48 ??μ ̵  庸
ϰ ϴ   ߻ ű⿡ ¾  ִ
ǵ ϰ ִ. Ư  'Ƶ ʹ߻
ɽŶ Ʊ ʳ ߺһ '̶Ͽ ߻
信 ջ  ִ  ϰ ִ.3)
 ž 
ں  Ծ  ȥŹ 󿡼 ġ  ˿
Ȥ  ȶ  ջϿ ű⼭ ϰ ϴ
ºұڵ  ǥ ̴.
  2 ݾijд Prajnaparamita 
  ݾ߰ 濡 ?(32 )    ª  
 ִ.  ߿   ƴٰ ֵǴ 
'Ȱݾ Astasahasrika'(ǰݾ)̸ ̰ ȮǾ 25,000?
'ǰݾ' Ǿ  '' ٷ  ǰݾ'
̴ֿ.  ܿ 18,000?,100,000?  ͵ ־
ª δ 'ݰݾijдٰ Vajracchedika-prajna-
paramita-sutra' 500?, 'ݾ߽ɰ Prajnaparamita-hrdaya-sutra'
300?   ִ.
__________
2) '빫' '?' '' Ҿ 
  ǰμ ΰ̶ Ҹ.
3) 'ż뼼' Vol. 12,, p.268a.  ̿ ̰ ִ.
  Max Muller, trans., The Larger Sukhavati-vyuha, Buddhist Mahayana
  Tests, The Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XLIX, p.15 .

  ݾ߰ ֿ  μ  ڼ svabhava 
Ͽ ̰  ǻ̶ ̴. ̰ ҽºұ, Ư
üο  üϴ   ϴ μ
ºұ ٺ ̷ ̴.   ݴ
 ݾ,   prajna̸, ̷  ԰Ͽ 
쵵 õϴ ̴.  ǰ   'ݰ'
'̻'̶ ǥϰ ִ.  ϰ  
   , һ ߻, ϴ ڿ
޴ ,  ⼼, ??    ,
һ   ƴ϶  ݾ߰ ŵ ϰ ִ.
  3 'Ҽ Vimalakirtinirdesa-sutra'
     ԰Ͽ '' ӻȸ 
 簡ұ ̻ ģ.   ΰ 
Vimalakirti̶ Żμ ״  ־ һ ٸ Ⱑ
ڵ麸ٵ ξ پ ״  ־ һ ٸ Ⱑ
ڵ麸ٵ ξ پ ׵ ϰ ϰ, 𼭳 ϴ
ħ   ش.   븳 ʿ
 advayatva  μ Ұϰ  ǥ
 ٴ  ǰ ִ.   ƽ 
ִ ̷ο ̴.
  4 'ȭ Saddharmapundarika-sutra()'
  ''   ̻ ҽ¿ 븳 ϰ ִ
ݸ鿡, 'ȭ' ̷ 븳 ظ ʿϿ һ 
 ᱹ  ߻ ȭ   upaya  ʰ,
 Sravaka, 찢 Pratyekabuddha,  Bodhisattva  ᱹ
Ͻ ekayanaȤ Ϻҽ¿ ͰѴٴ ºұ  
ϰ ִ.  Ϻҽ¿ Ͽ  ߻ ϴ ̴.
һ ־ 'ȭ' һ簡 Ͽ Ⱑϰ  
Ը   ߻ ȭ    ʰ  һ
 Ұ̰   ?  ̷ ̶
Ѵ. 'ȭ' ̻     ϰ
  ġ  ̴. žžӰ ǽžӵ
 濡 ϰ Ÿ ִ.
  5 ȭ 
  'ȭ' ѿ 40Ǻ, 60Ǻ, 80Ǻ  
߱ 5⿡ ??糪 Buddhabhadra Ͽ 
60Ǻ 'Ȯȭ Mahavaipulya-buddha-avatainsaka-sutra'
 θ Ǿ Դ. 'ȭ' ſ  μ 
 Ǵ   𿩼 ̷  ִ.
'ȭ'  μ 'ǰ'   ϱ
Ͽ ij ۾ư    ܰ
Ͽ ϰ ִ.4)   ܰμ , , ȸ⵵
ϰ ִ.  'Թǰ'    
Sudhana  μ ǰְ ׸ ִ. '' 
 DZ Ͽ ޾  ϴ  ϴ μ
絿ڴ ȸ 谢 Ȱϰ ִ 53
ãƴٴϸ    ??  踦 Ѵ.
'ǰ' '' ׽Ͻ ηϺ ǽ'̶
 ɻ citta-matrata ϴ  ߰ߵȴ. ̰
ηϺ  ,   VIJNANA, CITTA  ߽ϴ
μ Ļ ߴ޿   ־.
__________
4)ij ijп , , ,  ij  ̴.

  *
Conze E., trans., The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand
  Lines and its Verse Summary. Bolinas, 1973.
_____, Buddhist Wisdom Books: The Diamond Sutra and the Heart
  Sutra. London, 1958.
Cowell, E.B., M. Muller, & J. Takadusu, trans., Buddhist Mahayana
  Texts. SBE, Vol. XLIX Oxford, 1894.
Dutt, M.N., Aspects of the Mahayana Buddhism and its Relation to
  Hinayana. London, 1930.
Kern, H., trans., The Saddharmapundarika or the Lotus of the True
  Law, SBE, Vol. XXI, Oxford, 1884.
Lamotte, E., trans., L'Enseignement de Vimalakirti. Louvain, 1962.
Thurman, R.A.F., trans., The Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti. Uni-
  versity Park and London, 1976.
Walleser, M., Prajnaparanita: Die Vollkommenheit der Erkenntnis.
  Gottingen, 1914.

  11 ߰ö

  1  ߰ö 

  ºұ ó ҽºұ    
  ̿ ݹϿ   Ͼ
̾, ð Կ  ºұ ڿ ö ڽ
ϰ ȣ ʿ信 ߴ ̴. ׸Ͽ ҽºұ
   sastra   ̴.  м ߿
     ְ л ߾ӵǾ  
Nagarjuna ͵̴.  ±  2-3  ι
Ǹ ε   ұ  Ӹ ƴ϶
ܵ  ԰Ͽ ̿ ߳   ص ϰ
ִ.  ÿ   ʱ °,  ݾ߰,
'ȭ', 'ȭ',   ݰ  ´ ƴϰ
̹ Ǿ ǰ ־ 츮   Ͽ
  ,  ̵  ؼϴ  
̴.   , ö ߿ ͵ ϸ
 .
  1) ݾ߰   ԰Ͽ ױߵ  ص
ϴ μ, '߷ Mulamadhyamaka-karika', '̹
Dvadasanikaya-sastra', 'ĥʷ Sunyatasaptati'
  2)   ԰ ܵ ϴ 'ȸ Vigraha-vyavar-
tani'
  3) 'ǰݾ' ֿμ,    
̴  ''
  4) 'ȭ' 'ǰ' ֿ 'ֺļҷ' ȭ
ɻ ϴ '̽ʷ' ִ.
  ̻󿡼   ִ ,    
̾ ܼ ݾ߰    ƴϴ. ׷
 ö    ־   
'߷' ߽ Ͽ ߰ö ϰ  ̴. 
ڷμ ? Aryadeva  ־ ' Catuhsataka'
ߴ.  ''  '߷'  '̹' Բ ߱
 ⺻  ̷.  350濡 û Pingala
̶ ڰ ͼ '߷' ּ , ?? Kumarajiva
Ͽ ѿǾ ߱ұ ū  ƴ. 4ʹ
ö εұ dzԿ  ߰ö ڿ ö
ڵ鿡 Ͽ Ǿ. 6⿡ ȣ Buddhapalita û
Bhavaviveka ͼ '߷' ּ , '߷' ؼ
̸  ߰  ַ ϰ Ǿ. ȣ 
Ī Candrakirti ͼ '? Prasannapada'̶ '߷'
ּ ߰ö Թ '߷ Mudhyamakavatara' Ἥ
Ƽұ ϰ Ǿ. û 'ݾ Prajnapradipa'
̶ '߷' ּ  ״ ǽ ö ȣ
Dharmapala ļ Ͽ ߰   븳
ȭ״. ȣ ߰ĸ ī PrasangikaĶ θ,
ڱ    ʰ  ظ 
 ϴ   ϴ ݸ鿡, û
߰ĸ źƮī Svatantrika θ, ڱ 
 õϴ  ϰ ִ. û  7
 Jnanaprabha ?öп Ͽ   ϱ
Ͽ һ ħ ÷   ߴ. 
ҽ 缺? Ͽ ɰ汸, ?Ĵ ļ
Ͽ , ׸ ߰ö  ġ Ͽ
ɰ汸  Ѵٴ ̴.

  2 ߷ ö
  '߷' Ÿ   ϱ Ͽ 츮 '߷'
''     ʿ䰡 ִ. 츮 ̹ ҽ
 һ ڽ ΰ翡  ڱ ظ ߵ 
ϰ ִ  Ҵ.  ״ ΰ  Һ
̻ 簡 ִٰ ϴ  嵵 ź, ÿ
ΰ  Ҿ η ưٴ  嵵 źߴ.
'߷' '' ̿  Ÿ ⺻    ȮϿ
 ü   Ը ϴ ̴.  
  ϴ ڼ svabhava    ̴.
׷    ƴϸ, ٸ ڼ   ϰ
ִ 󼼰 ǻ ִ ״ ǥϴ  ̴.
 ̶ .̸ ߵ madhyama pratipad ̴. .
񹫶  ̶   縦  ǥϴ
Ÿ  ̿, ߵ  ǥϴ   ̴.
  ׷ Ͽ    .̸, ߵ ΰ?
̰   ִ  '߷'   
̴: 'ηϼһ' 'Ƽð', '', 'ߵ'.
ηϿ      ڻ  ϴٴ
̴.    pratityasamutpada  ٰ ̴.
E ߱⼳ ҽºұ, Ư οó  縦 ϴ
ϰ  ׵ ΰ踦 ϴ θ 
ʾҴ. ⼳  ö ǹ̴    踦
޴ ̸  ̱   ϴ
ڼ Ῡϰ ִ ڼ nihsvabhava,   sunyata̶
̴. ׷ ϴ  ǻ  ˸,   ƹ͵
ƴ   ƴ϶  ״,  ִ  ׵ 
̸  ϴ ̴. 'ݾ߽ɰ'   'ð'
̿, 'û' ̴. ̰   prajnapti̶ θ.
''  û', Ȥ ''  谡 ӿ
ұϰ   ȴٴ μ, ̶ ڼ
Ῡ   ׷ ̸  ϴ 
ǹϴ ̴.   ƴϰ  ƴ ߵ  ̴.
   ̶  𸣰   踦
 ϴ  Ͽ   ߿  
޴   ̶ ̴.  ̷ ߳
ظ ŸϿ,   ִ ״ Ÿ
 ̴. Ÿ  ü ٸƴ  ̴.
   ϸ       
ϴ  츮  ȸ ϰ ִ 
 ݰ  踦  ִ Ѵ.  츮 ϴ
 繰   ϴ  ϰ , 츮
 ϻ Ű Ͽ 踦   繰  ǰ
   ϴ ó δٴ ̴. ġ Ȱ
  ٱ谡   Ȱ   ִٰ
ϴ Ͱ  ̴.   '߷' ʵο
츮 ϻ ϰ ִ . . . . . . .
      мϸ ׵  츮
Ӹӿ س  vikalpaμ   prapanca
  Ѵ. ⼭  ַ ϰ ִ 
 ? μ  ϳϳ Ͽ
װ͵ ᱹ ̰ ̰ ո  巯
? prasanga, reductio ad absurdum̴. ̷  
ϸ  츮   𸣰 繰  
 ϴ   ̴. ''  ϳ
мνᵵ   εöп ǵǰ ִ 
̻ ΰ ñ ո  ϰ ִ.
,    һ, Ҹ, Ҵ, һ, , , ҷ,
(Ⱥ)̸    Ÿ缺 Ҿ Ǵ
̴.   ְϰ ̴.
  ׷ٰ  ϻ   Ÿ缺  ϴ
 ƴϴ. ⼭ 츮  ? ϰ ȴ. 
ϸ 츮 繰         
ִٰ Ѵ. ׸      ? paramartha-satya
? samvrtti-satya ȴٴ ̴. ? 繰 ִ ״
ݾ prajna(wlgP)   μ  ʿ 
 ϴ ̸, ?     
μ   samvrtti  Ѵ.  ̷
ϻ  Ѵٴ   ʴ´. ƴ  
忡       ö  ٸƴ
? ܰ迡 ̷ ̴.  ϱ⸦ ?
 ?   ٰ Ѵ.  һ  ַ
縮 ϻ 鿡 ٰϿ ̷  ñ
ǥ   ʿϴ°  Ÿ ̴.
ֱ ? ݱ  ?  ʿ ϴ ̴.
Ӹ ƴ϶ 츮 ̹  ٿ  ? ̶
 ü   踦 ǹϱ  ᱹ  
    ? ? ο Ȱ뿡 
ʴ ̴. ? ?  ü ϳ  
  ñ 븳 ǹϴ  ƴϴ.
  ?     븳    advaya
μ  ,  , ̿ , ߻ һ, ׸ ?
?  Ǹ   ҵ anupalabdhi
̴. ׷   ÿ    ״
 ִ  ̱⵵ ϴ.  ٷ   迡
԰Ͽ ? Ǹϰ '߷' ö ϴ ̴.
  *
de Jong, J.W., trans., Cinq Chapitres de la Prasannapada. Paris,
  1949.
La Vallee-Poussin, L. de, trans., "Madhyamakavatara," Museon 8-12
  (1907ff).
Lamotte, E., trans., Le Traite de la grande vertue de sagesse. 2
  vols. Louvain, 1944, 1949.
May, J., trans., Prasannapada Madhyamakavrtti. Paris, 1959.
Murti, T.R.V., Central Philosophy of Buddhism. London, 1955.
Ramanan, K.V., Nagarjuna's Philosophy as presented in the Maha-
  prajnaparamita-sastra. Vermont & Tokyo, 1966.
Robinson, R., Early Madhyamika in India and China. Madison,
  Wisconsin, 1968.
Schayer, St., trans, Ausgewahlte Kapital aus der Prasannapada.
  Cracovie, 1931.
Sprung, M., trans., Lucid Exposition of the Middle Way: The Essen-
  tial Chapters from the Prasannapada of Candrakirti. Boulder,
  1979.
_____, ed., The Problem of two Truths in Buddhism and Vedanta.
  Dortrecht, Holland, 1973.
Streng, F., Emptiness: A Study in Religious Meaning. Nashville,
  Tennessee, 1967.
Stcherbatsky, Th., The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. Leningrad,
  1927.
Walleser, M., Trans, Die Mittlere Lehre des Nagarjuna. Heidelberg,
  1911, 1912.
Ⱑ  'Ī߷п' 1,2.
_____, '߰ұ?'
_____, 'ݾ߻'
_____, ' '
ú, 'ٺ?' 'ߵ???ߴ'
, 'εöп' 

  12 ı° 

  1  
  ұ ٶ󹮱   μ ߴٰ 
 ִ. ׷ ٸ ĵ ޸ ұ ռ Ȱ
Ͽ, ׸ ٸ δ Ƽī īϽī  
ֵ  Ծ ε  ϰ Ǿ. ׷
ұϰ ұ   ٶ   ߴ.
ұ ̹ εε  Ȱ ӿ Ȯ ġ ϰ
ִ    縦 źν 
̴  ֵǾ  ̴. ұ  ٶ 
  ȸ Ư  ʾ  ƴ϶, ׵
  缺  ܰ varna-asrama ߽ 
ȸ,  'ٸ dharma' ü迡   
Ϲ 簡ڵ Ȱ  ٶ󹮱 뿡 Ͽ
 ̴. ׷  Ƽī Asoka 츮 Maurya
    Sunga ұ ϰ ٶ󹮱
״.  ̹    Kusana 
ұ  Ϻε  ʿ  ε
Ÿϳ Satavahana, (Andhra) Ͼ ٶ󹮱 
޵ ȣϴ å .   Ÿϳ 
 3ʹ  ұ Ͽ ε  ұ
븳  ġ ȥ . ׷ 320濡
Ÿ Candragupta1 Ÿ Gupta  繫
Ÿ Samudragupta(330 )  ε ν
츮 Maurya   500⸸ μ ϱ ٽ
ϰ Ǿ.   Ÿ  6⿡  ħԵ
ϱ  ȸ ؿ й    鿡
 ȭ Ǽߴ. δ ٶ󹮱 
Ǿ ٶ  εȸ ϰ Ǿ. 
Ÿ  ٽŰ 񽴴ſ   žӵ θ
 ε   Ŵܵ Ǿ. ٶ󹮵鿡
Ͽ Ǿ  꽺ũƮ Sanskrit  ȭ ε
޵Ǿ 꽺ũƮ   ǰ
Ǿ. ε ͽǾ Ҹ Įٻ Kalidasa 
ε Ÿ ʱ⿡ Ȱ ̴. ̷ ȭ ȯ
ӿ ٶ öĵ   , õ 
꽺ũƮμ  ü  ϰ  ̴. Ƿ
 ñ εȭ Ȳݱ   ִ.
  Ÿ ٶ󹮱   Ͽ ұ й
 ƴϴ.  Ÿ  뼺  ұ
 ־. ̿   Ծ 5ʿ ұ 
    Nalanda  
 ķκ   ұп ߽  ̴.
鿡 ־ ұ ڿ ̷ ġ ȭ ߼
 ޾ ٶ п Ͽ  ü ö 
꽺ũƮ ϰ Ǿ. ̵ 뿡 ־
ٶ   ްų װͿ Ͽ ȣ ;
ϴ   Ǿ ÿ ٶ ö  ũ
ڱؽŰ⵵ ߴ.
   ñ⿡ Ÿ ° ߿ ͵ ٸ 켱 
 ... ϸ Żָ ϴ '?ݰ',
ΰԴ     ɼ ٰŷμ
?̶ ڼû ִٴ  ϴ '" Srimalasutra'̳
'?', ö ٺμ ?? 
 ϴ 'ؽɹа samdhinirmocana-sutra', ?
Ϸ?Ļ ȭ ?ϱ⼳ Ų '?
Lankavatara-sutra'   ֵ. ̵ ı °
   ģ Vasubandhu ̸ 3-5ʿ ļ
 μ ַ ? tathagatagarbhaȤ Ҽ 
Ļ vijnapti-matrata ϰ ִ. ׵ ݾ̳߰
߰ö  ޾Ƶ̸鼭, 翡   ٹ
Ͽ ̳  ֺҸ 翡 ϸ ΰ ־ 
   ִ   ǰ  Ͽ Ĵϻ
ٶ󹮻 ϰ ִ ̴. Ӹ ƴ϶ 
Ƽ anatman Ű鼭 ȸ üμ Ϸ? alaya-
vijnana̶ 縦 Ͽ ΰ Ӽ ϸ 
Ϸ ߴ. ̷ ο   ö
Ű ȭ   Yogacara öڵμ,
?? Maitreyanatha,  Asanga, ģ Vasubandhu 
± ġ ̷. 켱 ׵ ö ϱ  
ñ⿡      ڼ  .

  2 Ļ  
  1 'ؽɹа Samdhinirmocana-sutra'
       ߿ ̴. 'ؽɹа'
ſ ṵ̈ ̷ μ ̶⺸ٴ 
 ̴.        Ƽ
 ѿμ ?(514) 忪(647) 
ִ.   '?ǰ' ݾ߰ ݾ߻ ԰Ͽ
?,  ? paramartha-satya ټ  ϰ ִ. ?
 ̻ ,    , ?縦
ʿϴ ,  ̼ ʿ ,  ϴ Ϲ̻
  ִٰ Ѵ.  'ǰ' 'ڼǰ'
 ԰Ͽ  ǻ  trilaksana ﹫ڼ
̷ ϰ ִ. ̶    vyavahara
 prajnapti   Ī ϰ ϴ 
parikalpita-laksana, ϱ⿡  ִ Ͱ  ̷Ͽ
Ͽ ϴ Ÿ paratantra-laksana, ׸ 
    ǻ parinispanna-laksana Ѵ.
﹫ڼ̶   شϴ μ   ڼ
svabhava ٴ ڼ, Ÿ; Ͽ ϴ 
ڼ ٴ ڼ, ׸   ڼ̶
ǹڼ Ѵ.
  ̻  ̷  ,  蹫ڼ  
 鿡  ͻ̴. ׷ 'ؽɹа' ̷ 
  ڼ ٰ Ͽ θ һ ħ 
巯  nitartha ϰ ݾ̳߰ ҽ° ҷ
neyartha .  'ؽɹа' һ (")
ð ־ Ѵ. ù° ?  Ͽ
?  Ͽ, ι° ¿ ư  Ͽ
ڼ ٰϿ ? , ׸ ° ¿
ư ڸ Ͽ  ڼ ǰϸ鼭 
 ߴٴ ̴.  ̶ ݾ߰  
ǻ  θ  ʰ   ̸鿡  ִ
  巯´ٴ  ǹѴ. 'ؽɹа' ǰ
ϴ  ̿   ٰϿ ҽ° ߰
     ġ ö ǿ ϴ ̴.
  ׷ μ 'ؽɹа' Ǵ ̷ ̳
﹫ڼ  ̷лӸ ƴ϶ 'ǽĻǰ'̳ 'кǰ'
  Ÿ ִ  vijnana ̷п ߰ߵȴ. 'ǽĻǰ'
 ڽμ Ʒ? alayavijnana̶ θ.
   ִ   Ͽ ȯ 谡 
ȴٴ ̴.    ڸ Ưϰ ְ 츮 
    ϰ ֱ  Ư adanavijnana̶
θ. ̷ 츮 ϻ  踦 ƶ߻
μ   ƶ߽ķϱ⼳̶ Ѵ. ׷ 'ؽɹа'
  ƶ߽ļ  ,  󼼰
缺 ϴ ̷а иϰ Ǿ  ʰ, 
Ͽ 󼼰踦 ϴ ϱ  ٷ
ִ.  ƶ߽  ٵ ҽºұöп
 Ǿ    ȸ ü  
 μ ϰ  ̴.
  'ǽ' 'ǽ mano vijnana'    Ͽ
кۿ ϴ μ ö Ƚļ Ŀ
شѴ. 'ؽɹа'  ĥ  ? manas 
߰ߵ ʴ´.
   'ؽɹа'   и  ִ 
'к?ǰ'μ ̸ Ÿ   Ÿ
    Ѵ.  ︶ samadhi() ????
vipasyana()   Ÿ  ɰ ٸ  .
ֳϸ    Ļ̹Ƿ vijnapti-matra; ideation-only
 vijnana ҷ alambana()  Ŀ Ͽ Ÿ ͻ̴.
̿    ٸ  ٸ ᱹ   °Ϳ
 ʴ ̴. ġ ſ£  ߰  
ٰ    ̶   ִ  ƴ԰
 Ѵ. ̻   Ŀ   츮
  ִ  Ļ  ,  䰡 yoga 
ü迡 ϰ ִٴ ̴. ׷  ö
 yogacara ö̶ θ ̴.
  2 '?޸ Abhidharma-sutra'
      İ μ ߿ ̾
ٸ  ؼ ˼ ִ. Ư  '?·'
  '?ǰ' ؼ ̶ Ѵ. ׷   
ʱ  Ȯ    .   ü ֵ
ſ ṵ̈  ̾   ִ.

  3   
  ı°  Ļ ϴ  Ҿ 
ϳ η ϰ ִ   tathagatagarbha
߽ ϴ ̴.  ٺ  ߻
  Ͽ    ϸ   ִٴ μ,
̷  ҽ°  ̹ ãƺ  ִ.
Ư 츮 ̹   ߺδ ̰ ϳ ٺ
  ̴. ̷  ºұ Ͽ µǰ
Ǿ ''ݰ'  ° '߻?һ'̶
Ҽ  Ÿ ̴.  ̿ 
 帧 μ ?    
 ȭϰ Ų  ̴. ''̶ 
 'tathagatagarbha',  ' ?' μ ߻
 ȿ  Ű ? ٴ ̴. ׷ ̷ з
ǹ̰ ߿   ȮǾ ؼ Ǿ. 'Ҽ'
    '' 信   ִٰ Ѵ.
 ? ? ?  Ѵ. ? ߻
  Ͽ ?ȴٴ ̰, ? 
߾٤  ''μ    ߻ ӿ 
ִٴ  Ͽ, ? ߻   
    ?ϰ ִٴ ̴. 츮
     ַ ι° °
ǹ̷μ  ϰ  ù°  
ϳ  ؼ ֵǾ  ̴.
  1 ''
        
''̴.   ߻  ȿ  ϰ
ִ  tathagatagarbha̶ Ѵ.    
   ο ִ ߻ ο ڱ  
   m ½ϰ ִ  ٰ Ѵ. ̿Ͱ
  ϴ  κ عǾ 
ȴٰ Ѵ. ߻ ȿ  ִ   '',
'', '', ' ', '', '', ''

̸ θ. ׸ ̿   ϰ ִ
߻  'õ ȭ  ', '  ̹', õ
ڰ ? '  9  ϰ ִ.  
 ΰ     ɼ   
Ͽ ְ ִ ̴.
  2 'Ұ'
    ֿ  ߻谡  ̸ ߻ 
  ߻   ٴ ̴.  ߻,
 ߻  ̰  ̴. ׸  
  ο ִ  ߻̶ θ,  ָ
 ?   ̶ θ,   
   θٰ Ѵ. '' 
߻ Ͻϴ ݸ鿡 'Ұ'  ߻,  ߻
( dhatu) Ͻϰ ִ.    ''
  Ѵٴ ̶⺸ٴ  ?,  
 صǴ ̴.
  3 '¸'
    ΰ ¸ Srimalaμ ''  簡ұ
ǥ ̴. '¸'   Ͽ ο
  ̶ θٰ Ѵ.   Ⱦϰ
 ϴ ?̶ Ѵ. ׸ 忡 Ұ
   ϰ ִ. ڴ   Ұ
    ϰ ڴ   Ÿ
     ǹѴ.
  4 'ݰ'
     һ簡 Ը  Ͽ ݿ  ó
̴  翡 Ұϸ   ֺҺϴ ̸
  ij ߾ ִٴ ̴. ߻
̶  'ݰ' ߻ Ҽ  ִٴ
 ǥϰ ִ(߻?Ҽ).  , , ,
ϴ  ҽºұ ؾƺ  ִ 
 atman  ϴ   anatman  븳Ǵ
μ и һ  ħ ġǴ ̶
 ̴. ׷ ұϰ 'ݰ'  Ż Ҽ
  Ͽ ϰ  '' ϰ ִ
̴. ᱹ Ĵϻ  ſ  ϰ ִ ̴.
  4 '?' '±ŷ' ı°   ʰ
  ֵǴ μ ε ̵ ƶ߰
  ֵǴ μ ε ̵ ƶ
ķϱ⼳ Ļ  ?ȭŰ Ư¡  ִ.
  '?' 443 ȿ Ƿ ʾ 4 濡
Ǿ ־   ִ. '?'  ƺ޸
abhidharma μ ÿ ϰ ִ  »
  ϰ ִ.    ϰ δ
ȣ?̱⵵ ϴ. '?'  ߿  ,
ڼ, Ƚ, ̹Ʒ ϰ ִ. ''̶  naman, 
nimitta,  vikalpa,  samyag-jnana,  tathata ϰ,
'ڼ'̶ ڼ, ڼ, ڼ(й, Ÿ, Ǽ)
Ѵ.  ߿   ڼ شϰ,  ڼ,
  ڼ Ѵ. ''Ƚ' ƶ󷪽,  manas,
ǽ mano-vijnana  , , , ,   ϰ
'̹' ιƿ Ƹ Ѵ.
  '?'  Ǵ ٵ ƶ߽İ 
tathagatagarbha Ͻϴ  ߰ߵȴ.  ƶ߽
 踦 ϴ ̾ '? ̰ 
ϽϹǷ     ֵǴ ̴. 
ƶ߽ķϱ⼳  ٲ  ̴.  
   ٴٿ    ᱹ  μ
  ü   Ÿ̶ ̴. ׷
ٸ δ '? ƶ߽ ܼ ڼ 
ƴ϶ ȭ ߼    ϰ ִ.
    '?'  ? Ͽ  Ȥ
⸦ ϰ ִ  '±ŷ'̴. 'ŷ' 
  Ͻ(߻)  . Ͻɹ 
̸ Ͻɹ    ̴.  μ
Ͻɹ(ɻ)  ڼ̸ ƶ̶߽
Ѵ. ƶ߽ ߸ һ ȭϿ Ϻ
̸  ,  Ұ ϴ ȭ ̶ 'ŷ'
Ѵ. ƶ߽ Ұ Ͽ ϱ 
 谡 Ǹ, ƶ߽  Ͽ ϱ ȯ
 谡  ̴.

  *
Hakeda, Y.S., trans., The Awakening of Faith. New York, 1967.
Lamotte, E., trans., Sandhinirmocanasutra, L'Explication des mys-
  teres, Louvain and Paris, 1935.
Ruegg, D.S., La theorie du tathagatagarbha et du gotra. Paris, 1969.
Suzuki, D.T., Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra. London, 1930.
_____, trans., The Lnkavatara Sutra. London, 1932.
Wayman, Alex & Hideko, trans., The Lion's Roar of Queen Srimala:
  A Buddhist Scripture on the Tathagatagarbha Theory. New York, 1974.
õ, ?, , '', '.ºұ' 6.
_____, 'Ļ', '. ºұ' 8.

  13 ö

  1 ö 

  ö ߰öа Ҿ ε ºұö 
̷ ö̴. ö  Ͽ Ȯ ߰ö
   ٹĿ  ʰ  ޾Ƶ̸鼭
̿  ο ؼ ̷ Ѵ.
  츮 ϻ ϴ 繰 ڼ   ̸
 츮  Ͽ ǰų ۵ ̶, ᱹ
̵ 繰 츮  vijnana ϰ ִ  ƴѰ?
׷ٸ    ׵   ϴ  ƴϸ,
޿  ׵  ǽ 翡  ʴ ̴.
̿  Ʒ ö 縦 ν ȯϴ
ö  ̴.
  ö ٺ 츮 忡  , Ư
'ؽɹа' ߰ߵ, װ  üȭǾ ĸ
̷ Ȱ ± 4  ι Ǵ ??Maitreya
( 270-350) ڷκ̴. ״ ' Yogacarabhumi',
' Mahayanasutralamkara', 'ߺк Madhyanta-
vibhaga', 'Ǻ Dharmadharmatavibhanga', '
 samayalamkara', 'ݰݾ߰濪(ĥ?) Karika-saptati' ߿
 ߴ.1) '' ö ⺻μ
''̶ ̸  å ó '' 䰡ڰ
ؾ ϴ 17 ܰ踦 ϴ  Ե μ
 Yogacara̶  ⼭ Ѥ ̴.2) ''
Ļ  ԰ 䰡 ࿡ ö ʸ
 ְ ִ. ⼭ 츮   ִ  ļ 䰡
̶ õ  ٴ ̴. ''?Ὺ'
ƶ߽     ϸ Ʒ? ⼮
԰ Ļ صǰ ִ. '','ߺк',
'' Ļ  ϴ ̴.
  ?? ڸ ̾ Ļ ũ Ų  
Asanga(310-390)   ģ Vasubandhu̴.  ó
ҽ±ܿ Ⱑ ߿ ̸ڸ  ºұ
ߴٰ Ѵ.  μ'߷', '缺',
'¾?޸', '?·'   ö  ߿Ѱ
'?·'̴. '?· Mahayana-samgraha' ¾?޸'̳
̸ '' ǰ μ öп
԰Ͽ ºұ Ư 10 ׸ ϴ ü
̴. ù° ׸ 'Ǻ'μ  ,   Ưϴ
ٷμ ƶ߽ alayavijnana  ̰, ° ''μ
 ǻ Z trisvabhava ϰ ִ.  
parikalpita-svabhava, Ÿ⼺ paratantra-svabhava,  Ǽ
parinispanna-svabhava Z̴. ° ׸ 'Լ'μ
 vijnapti-matrata    ٷ, °
'ΰ'  ΰ μ  ijдٿ 
̴. ټ° 'ļ'   μ 
 dasabhumi Ѵ. ° 'к'   
  Ͽ ϸ ϰ° 'к'  
__________
1) Tibet 뿡 ϸ Maitreya 'Ͻº Mahayana-
uttaratantra-sastra' ٰ Ѵ.
2) ''   'yogacara'  'Yogacarya'
Ͽ    ̴.

ٷ. ° ׸ '?к'μ к nirvikalpa-
jnana  Ѵ. ȩ° 'ܺ'μ ̻ 
μ  Ǵ  ó Ѵ. ó̶
ҽ ݰ ޸   μ,  
klesaκ ο ̱ ϳ   ܵ ʰ
ں   ߻ Ͽ Ȱϰ ִ  
Ѵ.  '?·' 'ǰ'   trikaya
ϰ ִ. Ļ  ϰ ִ  'Ǻ'
''̸      ̴.


  2  ģ ö
  ̸ڿ  Ļ   ܽŰ ϼŲ 
  ģ Vasubandhu̾.  뿡 Ͽ 
 뷫 4-5 ι ȴ.3) ģ  ó
ҵ Ͽ ''  ҽ±  
    ޾  Ͽٰ Ѵ. ״ ̸
 κ 鿡 ּ  'ȭ', 'η',
''  ° ؼ .   μ
'¼', 'Ҽ', '̽ʷ', 'Ļ?' 
, '̽ʷ Vimsatika' 'Ļ? Trimsika'
 Ļ  ִ μ ö  ſ
߿ ̴.     ߽ Ͽ ö
ٺ 캸 Ѵ.
   vijnana Ȥ  Citta ߿伺 ó ұ󿡼
Ǿ Դ.  ?  ϳ̰, ϱ⼳ 
ҷμ ΰ ȸ ӿ  Ļ ̾ ִ ߿
 ̴. ? '  ٺ̴' ϴ°
__________
3)   Ͽ S. Dutt, Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of
India(London, 1962) PP.280-85.  ٽ '' 
ģ  ķл ģ ΰ ƴϸ ΰ̴.
⼭ ڸ .

ϸ4)  '   ߻ ,  ϱ 
߻ ϴ' ϰ ִ.5)  ΰ Samyutta
Nikaya '  Ͽ ̲  Ͽ dz,
 ٵ   ӽŲ'6)  ã 
 ִ.
  츮 ̹   淮 öп Ϲ?̶ Ͽ
 ̼  ڽ  ȸ ü ϴ 
츮 Ҵ. Ӹ ƴ϶ 'ȭ' 'ǰ' 
,      citta, vijnana()̶ 
߰ߵǴ ͵ ߴ. ö ̷  Ѹ 
μ 'ؽɹа', ̸, ,   ̷  ļ
ģ ͼ ϴ   ̷  ̴.
  켱 ģ м ϱ  ''̶  Ȯ  
ʿ䰡 ִ. '' ''̶  'vijnana'sk 'vijnapti'
 ̴. 'Vijnana'  ַ ǽ Ȥ ν ۿ
 ü ϸ װ   Ͽ °
 Ƚ, ̽, ǽ  Ǵ ̴.  'vijnana' 
  ü ǹϱ⵵ ϰ    ϴ 
ǹϱ⵵ Ѵ. '' '' 'vijnana' ϸ ''̶
 ''̶   ó   Ŀ ϰ ִٴ
̴. ̷ 濡  vijnna-matrataö 
citta-matrata ö̶ θ.  öп ϴ ̶
Ĵϻ峪 Ÿöп ϴ Ʈ atman  
cit ϴ  ƴ϶ ׽ ϰ ִ 帧 samtanaμ
  ̴. ٸ ,  'vijnapti'  μ
'Vijnapti'  νĵǾ , ν , Ȥ ǥ Vorstellung;
__________
4) 'ģ' Vol. 1, p.827b, ''
5) '', p.69c, 'ɳ߻ ߻'
6) Mrs. R. Davids, trans., The Book of the Kindred Sayings (Samyutta-
Nikaya), Part 1, p.55: 'Its thoughts are that whereby the world is led,
And by its thoughts it ever plagues itself, And thought it is above all
other things That bringeth everthing beneath its sway.' ⼭ 'thought'
 'citta()'  ̴.

representation, ideation ǹѴ.   ' vijnapti-matrata'
̶ Ĺ,  츮  ν ()  ִ°
 簡 ƴ϶  Ÿ ǥ̶ ְ 
 ϴ ̴. ̰ ''  Ϲ ̴.
׷ ̻  'vijnana' 'vijnapti'  
Ȯ  ƴϴ.
  ģ '̽ʷ Vimsatika' ַ ؼ Ĺ ظϴ
̴ ࿡ 繰 츮 ǥ̳   
ϴ  ƴ϶,  Ͽ 츮 繰 ð 
   ,  츮   ν
     ϴ   ϰڴ°
 '̽ʷ' Ѵ. ģ   
 Ͽ Ѵ.  ް    
Ϳ 츮      ϱ  ׷
  ܰ 缺   Ѵٴ ̴. 
Ǿ Ͽ   ڵ ű⼭  
µ    ü ʴ 
  .  ׵   ڵ  
μ Ÿ  ̴. ׷    Ȥ 
vasana  ȿ ϴ  ݸ,     ۿ
Ѵٰ ߸ Ѵٴ ̴. ̰ ׷  
  ⳪    ȿ  ۿ 
̶ ģ Ѵ. һ簡 ġ νĿ  ٰŰ ִ
ó   ߻ ȭ  ̸ 
ν  ü ڷκ ߻ϴ μ ü(ھ) ü
  Ÿ  ʴ´ٴ ̴.
  '̽ʷ' ַ Ĺ濡 '' 鿡  ΰ
ִ.       ʴ 
ϴ ó ̴°  vijnapti-matrata ü
ī  ʰ ִ.   ̷   ģ
'Ļ? Trimsika'̴.
    ʵο ģ ļ ٽ ?  ְ
ִ:

  ƹ 
  ǽļҺ ɺ
  atmadharmopacaro hi vividho yah pravartate
  vijnanapariname sau parinamah sa ca trividha

  ̰ ϸ: 'ƿ      
ϳ,   ̴' ̴. ⼭  atman 
dharma ü ü 踦 Īϴ μ ׵ 
 upacara,   ӽ÷  μ  
к һ parikalpita̶ ̴. ׸ ̷ ƿ
̶ 㱸   vijnana  parinama ǰϰ ִٰ
Ѵ. ⼭ 켱 ö    㱸 ̶
 ʰ ׷  ̶  翡 ǰϰ
 ϰ ִ ̴. ׸  ɺ Ŀ 
ִٰ Ѵ. ⼭ 츮  Ƚļ Ѵ.
    Ͽ Ƚ Ʒ? alayavijnana Ȥ
̿ Ѵ. 'ƶ alaya'  ,  â μ
   ȿ  Ͽ ?  vasana, impressions
 · ϰ ֱ  ̶ θ ̴.
Ȥ 츮  ( vipaka) Ͽ ̶̿ Ҹ,7)
  ĵ ٺ DZ  ٺ̶ Ѵ.
̷κ ٸ  ĵ ġ ػ Ķ  
Ͽ Ͼ ̴. ƶ߽ ̶ ƶ߽ ȿ
Ǿ ִ ڵ ߾ϰ Ͽ Ÿ Ǵ 
кۿ ϴ μ, ̰ ٸƴ 츮 ϻ 
 ̴. ̿  ƶ߽ij ? ִ ڵ
__________
7) ''  츮  .   μ
ƶ߽ ü . μ ̷ Ÿ ̴.


ȭϿ Ÿ ĵ  pravrtti-vijnana̶ θ ̿
Ҿ 󼼰谡 Ÿ  ̶ Ѵ. ü ü,
νϴ ڿ νĵǴ , ü ȯ,    ƶ߽
 Ͽ Ÿ  ̶ ̴. ̷ 
迡 ٰϿ 츮    Ǵٽ ڵ ?Ͽ
Ʒ?Ŀ ǰ ȴ.  ڵ  ʰ ڷμ
 鼭  ڷ ϰ ȴ. ̻  
Ͽ п 'ڻ, ?, ڻ' Ѵ.
Ʒ? 帣   ׽ õϸ鼭 ȸ ü ̷
̴. ƶ߽ ׽ Ȱ ϰ  ƹ
ü νۿ뵵  ʴ´. ƶ߽ ü   
ʰ(?)  ǿ Ͽ ߼() ̳, ƶ߽
 ִ ڵ   ִٰ Ѵ.
  ƶ߽ Ȱ Բ ĥ ? manaseh ۵ϰ ȴ.
̰  ̴. ? 緮 manana ַ ϴ
緮μ ƶ߽  Ͽ  Ű ׽ ư
atma-drsti, ? atma-moha, Ƹ atma-mana, Ƽ atma-sneha
 Ѵٰ Ѵ. Űöп ־ ī ahamkara
شϴ  ̴.  ƶ߽İ  ڳ
 Ȱϰ ִ μ,    ĵ鿡 ϼ
οϰ ׵ Ȱ  ȴ. ٸ   ĵ
  Ȱϴٰ   Ӿ Ȱ
ϸ鼭 ΰ Ȱ Ӽ  ִ  
̴.
  ĥ Ȱ  ƶ߽   ĵ ۿ
ϰ ȴ. ̰   ̴.  , , ,
, ,  ٿ Ͽ   亰 visaya-vijnapti
ϱ  亰̶ θ.   ó   
 ϴ 鸸 ƹ  к 
ϴ  Ͽ  ǽ mano-vijnana  
(ɼҹ)Ӹ ƴ϶  Ͽ ־ 鿡 Ͽ
к  Ѵ.   ƴ϶ ǽ  ʴ 󿡱
  ִ.    ϰ ȸϱ⵵ ϸ
ƹ ̵    ִ ̴. п ǽ
İ Բ   ǽ̶ θ ǽ  ü
ܵ ϴ 츦 ǽ̶ θ.
  ̻    Ͽ  Ѵٴ 
 vijnapti-matrata ̷̴. ׷    𸣰
 ƿ   к vikalpa ϰ  ϰ
ȴٴ ̴. ̰ 繰  parikalpita-svabhava, 
к ̶ θ.   vijnapti   
ϴ ó Ѵٴ ̴. ׷ кϴ  ۿ
ü鵵 ƶ߽ ڿ ϴ Ÿ  ̴. ̰
Ÿ⼺ paratantra-svabhava,  Ÿ ηϿ ϴ ̶
θ. ׷ ٷ  Ÿ⼺ ݴ  츮
   ü  ִ ̴.   ְ к
븳 ʿ  tathata  ü  ̴. ̰ Ǽ
parinispanna-svabhava̶ θ. Ÿ⼺ Ǽ
 ʰ ٸ ʴٰ Ѵ. Ÿ⼭ ٷ 
Ǽ ݴ  ǰ ׷   
̴.  Z trisvabhava  ٸ    
﹫ڼ trividha nihsvabhavata ȴ. Z  ߰
  Ѿ   ǥ ̶,
﹫ڼ  ٸ ǥ ȴ. , к  ϱ
 ڼ̿, ⿡ Ͽ   ϱ 
ڼ̿,  ǻ  ̱  ǹڼ ̴.
  öе ο    Ѵ. ׷
 75  100 .  ö Ļ
԰ϰ ֱ   ο    ʰ
   ̴. ׷   Ͽ 
 з ǹִ ̴. 100 ɹ 8( 8), ɼҹ
51,  11, ɺλ 24,  6 Ǿ ִ.
   yogacara'̶  Ÿ  ö ܼ
̷ 纯   ƴ϶ 䰡   迡 ǰ
̴. 䰡 ܰ谡   ڴ  
޾ ü ü   ¿ Ѵ.  
̸κ عǸ  ΰ ,  ƶ߽ 
 ȯ Ͼ ȴٰ Ѵ. ̰  asraya-paravrtti
 θ. ƶ߽Ŀ  ?ڴ ? ڷ ٲ Ǹ
 ٲ  ϰ ȴٴ ̴.

  *
Jacobi, H., trans., Trimsikavijnapti des Vasubandhu mit Bhasya
  des Acarya Sthiramati. Stuttgart, 1932.
La Vallee-Poussin, L. de, trans., Vijnaptimatratasiddhi, La Siddhi
  de Hiuan-Tsang. Paris, 1928-1929
Lamotte, E., trans., La Somme du grands vehicule d'Asanga(Mahayana-
  samgraha). Louvain, 1939.
Levi, S., trans., Mahayana-sutralamkara, expose de la doctrine du
  Grand Vehicule selon le systeme Yogacara. Paris, 1907-1911.
_____, trans., Materiaux pour l'Etude du Systeme Vijnaptimatra.
  Paris, 1932.
Masuda, J., Der individualistische Idealismus der Yogacara-Schule:
  Versuch einer genetischen Darstellung. Heidelberg, 1926.
Schott, M., Sein als Bewusstsein: ein Beitrage zur Mahayana-Philoso-
  phie. Heidelberg, 1935.
Wolff, E., Lehre vom Buwusstsein. Heidelberg, 1930.

   14 ģ  ö

  1 ? ұ νķ

  Ĺ ϴ ö ڿ ν  ұö
ٺ ɻ . öп ᱹ 
νķ̿, νķ  ̴. ν   
ģ ö  ?(Dignaga; 5-6) ͼ  ε巯
Ÿ ü ұνķ   Ǿ. ?
δ 'ҷϷ Alambanapariksa', 'Ƿ Prajnaparamita-
pindartha-samgraha', '?߷ Hastavalaprakarana', ' Pramana-
samuccaya' ִ. 'ҷϷ'  忡  ν 
(ҷ) ϰ ְ 'Ƿ' 'ǰݾ߰'  ,
Ÿ⼺, Ǽ Z Ͽ ؼϴ ̴.
'?߷' ̶ܰ  ̸  ̶ 
Ѵ. ġ    ̶ ϵ ܰ谡
  𸣰  ϴ Ͱ ٰ ϰ ִ.
? '?߷а '' ̿  Ĺ  ޹ħ
ִ Ư νķ ϰ ִ.
  ? ÿ ̹ ε öĵ ̻
ص ü  Ӹ ƴ϶ ׵  νķ
 Ͽ    ۾ Ȱ ϰ ־.
̷ Ȳ   ν  ġ ö
νķп     ܿ  ̴. ? 
öлӸ ƴ϶ ұ ٺ  ƿ  
νķ ȣ԰ ÿ Ŀ ̸ Mimamisa ö
̷е  ߴ. ̿ Ͽ  Ÿī
Uddyotakara  ' Nyaya-varttika' ö
 ȣ ?  ݹߴ. ұ Ī(Dharmakirti;
7) ͼ ?νķ  и  
ų  ƴ϶ '' ּ ' Pramana-
varttika' Ÿī Ŷϰ ߴ. ״  ̸
 ̷е Ͽ ̸  ֵ Kumarila Bhatta
 Sloka-vartlika ̿ ߴ.  9 íƼ̽
Vacaspatimisra  '' ? Ī
̷ ϸ ö  ȣߴ. , ̸,
Ÿ  ĵ Ͽ ұνķ  ȣ ڴ
8 ŸŸ Santaraksita ?ȣ   ī󽯶
Kamalasila. ڴ ' tattvasamgraha', ׸ ڴ
̿  ּ Ἥ Ÿī Ӹ ƴ϶
  ĵ Ϸ Ͽ. ᱹ ׵ Ƽ
 ۿ  ׵ εұ ־  ?
Ǿ ̴. ? ־ ۵ ұ  ٶö
ĵ  εöл翡 ־  ְ ߿
  ϳ.1)  ? Ī  ߽ Ͽ ұ
νķ 밭 캸 Ѵ.
   ұ    ʱ  һ ڽκ
Ͽ   Pratyaksa ߷ anumana ν
   Դ. ̰ ? Ī ͼ μ
׵ νķ  ̷ ִ.  ׵ ұνķ
__________
1) öа ? Ͽ ǥǴ ұöа £ Ͽ B.K.
Matilal Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar in Indian Philosophical
Analysis(The Hague, 1971) .

  ̷а ߷п  ̷  κ Ǿ
ִ.   ߷п  ̷  θ Hetuvidya̶
Ҹ ұ ̴. 켱 ? Ī ־ 
 ̷к   .
    ѷΰ εöп   ٺ 븳Ǵ
̷ ִ ϳ νķ nirakara-vada̿, ٸ ϳ
νķ sakara-vada̴. νķ̶ 츮 ܰ
繰 νԿ ־  Ͽ Ǵ  akara
ܺ  ü  ̸ Ȱ   ݿϴ
ͻ̶ ̷̴. ij ·öп ̶
ھ atman ,   Ͽ  artha ϴ
 ǹϸ, ο   
Ѵ. ̿ Ͽ νķ ̶  踦 
ִ ״ νϴ  ƴϰ ٸ   νѴٴ
̴.  μ迡 Ͼ ִ ǥ鸸 Ѵٴ
̷̴. 淮ο ö ̷ ̷ . ׷
淮ΰ  󼼰 縦 ϴ ݸ鿡 ö װ
 ʴ ̴. 淮ο    츮 
  巯  ƴϰ ٸ ӿ ־
鿡 ,   Ÿ ٰŷμ ܺμ踦
߸ Ͽ   ִٰ Ѵ. ? ߽  ұνķڵ
δ Ĺ   鼭, ٸ
δ ν̷ Կ ־ 淮 м 
޾Ƶ̰ ִ. ׵  淮ο ϰ ִ 
 ԰Ͽ  ߷   īӰ ߴ.
  ̶ ?    繰  δ ϰ
ִ ״  ڻ svalaksana  ϴ μ,
  Ǵ vikalpa Ե ʴ ν ̴.
߷ ̿ʹ ޸ ߻  Ű Ͽ ̷ 
νľ·μ, 繰  samanyalaksana  Ͽ
   kalpana Ȥ Ǵۿ뿡 ٰ ̶ Ѵ.
ڻ̶ ̶̰  Ͽ ǰ кǴ
 Ȥ  ̴. ̶  ϰ ִ 繰
   巯 ӿ Ͽ ̶
̷ ǥ    縦   кۿ
vikalpa Ͽ Ų ̴. 츮 ̷ кۿ뿡
Ͽ  ͵ ӿ  ʴ 繰 üȭϿ
 Һϰ   ϸ, ׷ ̰ 
迡 Ϸ Ѵٴ ̴.    ϰ ִ
Ҳ µ 鼭 'Ҳ'̶ ϳ ߻ȭ μ
װ ľϰ ִ Ͱ ٴ ̴. ̶ ٷ ̷
  Ȱ   kalpana  ϰ 
 翡  ϴ ν̴. ұνķ 
öа ޸   ,  κй nirvikalpa 
к savikalpa   ޾ƵƤ ʴ´. к
̶ ̹  ۿ Ե μ  縦
 ϴ ̴.
  ? ̻  ν̷п Ͽ  ǹ̿  Ư
ظ . ? ϸ ̶ 츮  Ͽ ͵
ΰμ  踦 Īϱ   
Ư   踦 Ī    
? ִ ̴. ׷ ? ϸ   
縦 巯ٰ Ѵ.  ̳ ̸  μ,
츮       װͰ ٸ
   apohaν   Ư 繰
Īϰ ȴٴ    繰 ''  
װ '' ƴ , Ȥ  ƴ   ƴ  ǹѴٴ
̴. ̷ Ͽ 츮   Ư 繰
Ī Ͽ   ִٴ ̴. ׸ ̷  
ᱹ ߷п ǰ ̴.
  ? ̷  pratyaksa   kalpana ϴ
Ȯϰ ϳ, ٸ δ  ҿ  
տ   ϱ Ͽ  ̿  ߰
Ȥ  縦 ؾ߸ ߴ. ׸Ͽ ״  
 manasa-pratyaksa: mental sensation̶  Ѵ.
 ̶    manas  ,  ǽ
mano-vijnana Ȱμ, 츮   ؼ 
   ?? ٷ   ־
̶ Ѵ. ׷      
Pratyaksa  ϸ   Ŀ ϴ 
ƴ϶ Ѵ.
  ? Ī ϸ  Ͽ Ͼ 츮  ν
ǽ svasamvedana Ѵ.  ǽ ÿ ǽ̸
츮  θ ߴ ڸ svayamprakasa ϰ
ִ. ġ   ü ߱ Ͽ ٸ  ϳ 
ʿ ̶ θ 巯   ̴.
 ? ϸ  Ŀ ־ ϴ ü
(grahaka-akara; ߺ, , ɷ) Ǵ  (grahya-
akara; , , ҷ) Ҿ ν ڱν̶ 
Ұ ν (pramana-phala, svasamvitti; , )μ
־ ̴. ̰ ? ϴ ν мμ 
 Ͽ Ͼ ν   ̷ ̴. ν
Ȱ ־ ϳ      ȴٴ ̷̴.
̷ ̷п ־ ν  ν  ȿ Ͽ
ְ, ν  ν  ġϴ ̴. ν
,     νĵ ־ ʱ ̴.
̷ Ǹ ᱹ ϴ , ν   μ
ν ̰  ν ü ü ϴ 
ƴϴ. ׸   ϳ 帧μ  ̸
ȥ̳ ھ atman  Ӽ̳ ° ƴϴ.  
ؼ   νķ Ļ ԰ؼ 縦 ϳ
ΰ ν ȯ    ö̶ 
 ִ.
  ̻  ? νķ  ̸ Mimamsa 
 ö νķа ū ̸ ̰ ִ.  ö
νķп ϸ ν̶ ھ atman μ, ν ü
atman  (,  )   
ҵ ̴. ׸ ν ǽ()̶  
DZ manas ν̶ ھ ¸  Ͽ νϴ
μ  ü ϳ ھ ¸ ̷ Ǵ ̴.
  ? ģ  ϰ Ų  ڵ
  μ,  ö (5-6), ȣ Dharmapala
(6 ),  Silabhadra(6-7) Ͽ  µǾ.
 '?·п'  ? ν м ߴ.
ȣ '̽ʷ'  'Ļ?' ֿ , ״
 ̿ܿ װ ǽϴ  ϳ ǽμ 
 м ߴ. ȣ 'Ļ?'  ؼ
   Ͽ 糪 (600-664) ҰǾ.
 ̿ ٰϿ 'ķ' Ͽ ƽþ ұ
ö      ö ʸ
ߴ.
   ?  ޸ ׿ ô ڷμ ?
Gunamati ͼ ģ  ּ    ?
Sthiramati(6) '߷', 'ߺǺ', '', ׸
'Ļ?' ּ . ? νķп ־  
ϳ ϰ װ Ÿ⼺   а
  μ ϴ   ʾҴ.
̿ Ͽ ? ȣ  Ȥ   Ÿ⼭ 
 ̴. ׷    ν̶  ü, 
ƶ߽   ʴ´ٴ  öڵμ ǰ
ϰ ִ ̴.  ۿ  Nanda(6) ڴ
, ߺи ϴ ̺м ߴ.

  2 Ī ұ 
  ݱ 츮  pratyaksa  ߽ Ͽ ?
νķ ߴ. ұ ν ٸ ϳ  ߷
anumana  ̷μ, θ hetuvidya̶ θ. θ
 ̶ θ ε  ټ  й ϳ̴.
̶ θ ε  ټ  й ϳ̴.
̶  sabdavidya    ư, ? silpa-
karma-sthana-vidya  , , ? й, ǹ cikitsa-vidya
 а , θ hetu-vidya  , ׸  adhyatma-vidya
 ڱ  ϴ й(ٶ󹮱 ٿ  й
ϸ ұ  ұ й) Ѵ. 'θ'̶ 
' hetu"̶  Ŀ  ̲  
Ű μ, װ   ߿ κ̹Ƿ 
 () й̶ Ͽ 'θ'̶ θ ̴.
  ұ¸  캼  ,  'ɷ',
'ؽɹа' ǰ '  ǰ', '' '',
 '¾?޸ 'ǰ', ģ 'Ƿ' 
  Ǹ ãƺ  ִ. ׷ ̿  
̾ ÿ  ο   ڴ ?.
״ '' 'θ'   , η
 ۹  ̷ Ͽ  θ  ߴ.2)
?  ߷  ۹,  ټ 
(, , Ƥ, , )  ? ߿ ''
'' ʿ  ϰ ۹  ̴. ̰
θ̶ θ    θ̶ θ. ? 
 Ͽ ? Sankarasvamin 'θ' ,
 7⿡ Ī Dharmakirti(650) Ͽ ''
ֿ ' Pramanavarttika' ' Nyayabindu'̶
__________
2)  󼳰 η Ŀ  .

м Ͽ ?   ϰ ״. 
ұ   氡ǰ ִ Ī ''
ǰϿ ұ 밭 캸 Ѵ.3)
  Ī öа  ߷ ڱڽ  ں
svartha-anumana   Ÿ parartha-anumana ϰ
 ںӷ ٷ. 츮 öп ̹  
߷  ٽ κ ߸ ٰŰ Ǵ  hetu,  
sadhya ҸĪ paksa  ִ ߸ Ȥ ǥ¡ linga
ִ.  ,

  --'꿡  ִ'(=; =Ҹ)
  --'Ⱑ °'(=߸)
  --'Ⱑ    ִ', Ʊ̿ó

 ߷ ϰ Ÿ  Ƿ ߷ ٰŰ Ǵ ,
 '' ٷ ¤ ϴ ̴.  Ī  ݵ
߾      Ѵ. ̰  ̶
Ѵ.4) ù°  ()  ־,  Ҹ() ݵ
ؾ Ѵٴ ̴(). ű⿡'' ־ 
ʿ  ư ű⿡ ؾ߸  Ÿϴٴ ֱ.
°   ݵ ɰ ,  () 
 쿡 ؾ Ѵٴ ̴(ǰ).  
Բ  ؾ  ʿ , 翡 ؼ
ؾ Ѵٴ Ģ̴.  °  ٷ   
Ȯ ϴ μ  ̷ Ǵ Ϳ  
ؼ ȵȴٴ Ģ̴(ǰ). ° ° Ģ
ΰ    vyapti ˱ Ͽ 
ġ踦 ϳ ? anvaya ׸ ٸ ϳ 
__________
3) Th Stcherbatsky, trans., Buddhist Logic (New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1962), Vol. 2 ٰ.
4)  £  ̷ ? ĪӸ ƴ϶   ·ö
ŸĴٿ ߰ߵȴ.

vyatireka Ȯ  ̴.     ǥ
μ  ߿ ϳ̶    ȴٰ
Ѵ. ǿ  ؼ ڸ  ϴ ̶ Ѵ.
   Ī ̷    Ű ο  
 ִٰ Ѵ.   ϼ ΰ̴. ࿡
߸ (, )  ǥǾ  ε
  Ѵ. ݸ鿡   ǥ 쿡
  ߸  ϼ ƴϸ ΰ 踦 ٰ
Ѵ.ϼ̶  üκ   ߸Ǿ 
, Ȥ  ܼ ϱ⸸ ص ̿ Ͽ 
 󳪿  svabhava-anumana Ǵ ΰ 
踦 Ѥ,.  , '̰ ̴, ֳϸ ೪
(Ȥ δϿ)̱ ̴' ̴. ⼭ '೪'κ
''   ʿ    ̴.
öп мǴ analytical judgment شϴ ̴.
ΰ̶ ΰ 簡 ΰ 踦   ϴ ̴.
Karya-anumana. '꿡  ִ, Ⱑ Ƿ' 
߷̴.  迡  Ǵ synthetic judgment شϴ
 ̴.
  Ī    ϼ̳ ΰ 谡 ϴ 
ΰ  ̿ ʿ   svabhava-pratibandha
ϱ ̶ Ѵ. ׷  쿡  ̿
ʿ̰  Ҷ  avina-bhava  ʱ ̴.
ϼ 쿡  (,'') ׷κ
ϰ ϴ  (, '೪')  Ȥ
 Ͽ , ΰ 쿡 ߸ٰŷμ
('') ߸μ ('') ڿ ϰ
ִ ̴.
  ̻      ϼ ΰ  
Ī   Ͽ  Ǵ  ٷ. 
 Ǵ  11 µ, ׸  Ǵٴ ݰ
̻   Ѵ.  Ǵ̶ Ī ϸ
 ·а   öа ޸ ܼ  
ִ   anupalabdhi ٰϴ  ' abhava'̶
 padartha  νĴμ ִ  ƴ϶ Ѵ.
 ̸Ŀ ϴ ó  νϴ Ư
νĹμ ''̶ ͵  ʿ䰡 . 
 ִ    繰   Ÿ ν Ǵٴ
̴. ׷ Ī ϱ⸦ ´ ν  Pramana,
 ̳ ߷ Ͽ ־    翡 
 Ǵ ǽ  samsaya-hetu Ǵ μ 
  ٰ Ѵ.   繰 ؼ  ν 
     μ   ٰ Ѵ.
ùٸ ν   縦  ν 
    ϱ  ̴.
  ݱ 츮 ں svartha-anumana,  ȥڼ θ
Ͽ ߸ϸ Ǵϴ   Ī ̷ ߴ.
 ״ Ÿ Ͽ ڱ Ǵ  ϴ
Ÿ parartha-anumana  ٷ. Ÿ̶
  Ÿο ޽Ű  ִٰ Ī Ѵ.  
ں񷮰 ޸ Ƹ׷  ܷй syllogism
.   Ҿ ('Ⱑ   ִ:
Ʊ̿ó')     ü   
  Ѵ. ٽ ϸ ں ͳ 
 Ÿ   ٰ   ִ. Ī
Ÿ  ¸ ϰ ִ.   ǹ̻ ̴ 
Ļ ̶̻ Ѵ. ϳ Ҹ( ־) 
(    Կ   ġ ٰ
 μ   ¸ Ѵ:

  -' 깰6) ϴ',  
  -'Ҹ ׷ 깰̴'
  -'Ҹ ϴ'

  ٸ ϳ ġ  Ѵ:

  -' ͵ 깰 ƴϴ', 7)ó
  -'Ҹ 깰̴'
  -'Ҹ ϴ'

  Ī  ̵   Ÿ񷮿 Ͽ  
 ڼ ϰ  ⼭ Ѵ. ں񷮿
  ϼ ΰ ٰ ߷ µ ϰ
ִ ̴. Ī ܷй  ݵ  ʿ䰡
ٰ Ѵ.   ΰ ÿ ־ ̱ ̴.
   ۿ Ī   ,   , 
   asiddha , Ȯ , , ׸ Ŀ Ͽ
ϰ ִ. ̻ 츮 Ī '' 
ұ(θ) 밭 캸Ҵ.

  *
  Frauwallner, E., "Dignaga, Sein Werk und seine Entwicklung,"
Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes 3(1959).
  Hattori, M., trans., Dignaga, on Perception. Harvard Oriental Series,
Vol. 47. Cambridge, Mass., 1968.
  Ingalls, D.H.H., trans., Materials for the Strdy of Navya-Nyaya
Logic. Harvard Oriental Series, Vol. 40. Cambridge, Mass., 1951.
  Matilal, B.K., Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar in Indian Philo-
sophical Analysis. The Hague, Paris, 1971.
_________
  6)'깰 krtaka"̶ ұ  samskrta-dharma شϴ ̴.
  7)  akasa Ư ҽºұ öп  asamskrta-
dharma ֵȴ.

  Mookerji, S., The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux. Calcutta, 1935.
  Randle, H.N., Fragments from Dinnaga. London, 1926.
_____, Indian Logic in the Early Schools. London, 1930.
Tucci, G., trans., Nyayamukha of Dignaga: the Oldest Buddhist
  Text on Logic, Materialen zur Kunde des Buddhismus, Heft 15.
  Heidelberg, 1930.
_____, trans., Pre-Dinnaga Buddhist Texts on Logic from Chinese
  Sources. Gaekwad's Oriental Series, Vol. 49. Baroda, 1929.
Vidyabhusana, S.C., A History of Indian Logic. Calcutta, 1921.
 'ұ'



    15 ̳ öü

  Ÿ ô뿡 ͼ  ǰ   ö ռ ö Ȱ
ұöлӸ ƴ϶ ̳ ū  ġ Ǿ  ñ⿡ 츮
̳öе ü
Ǵ  . ̳ 󰡵  ̳ ؼ ߽  
 ״ ϸ鼭 Ÿ ö ̷е ǽϿ ڽ νķа
     ʿ並   ̴. ̷  ߼
Ͽ
 ̳ ǥ öڷμ  ٿ  츶Ƽ  
ִ. ڴ "", ""  ǰ伭 , ڴ ""
̶   ̳ 伭 ߴ. 1)츶Ƽ ķε ̳ö
 󰡵  ū ö ȭ  ٺ εöл翡 ϳ
 帧  Դ.
    伭 ߽ Ͽ ̷ ̳ üȭ ö Ұϸ
 .

  1 ̳ νķ

  ̳ö   Ͱ   .   츮
ϻȰ ϴ μ, ǰ߰ û   ִ. ǰ̶ 
ν̳ ߷ Ѵ.   ŸĿ   
з, ̳  δ   ϰ  
Ͽ߸
DZ      Ѵ. û ִ ڵκ
 ƴ  Ѵ.
  ̳ö ϴ  ̶  Ư  μ, ,
Ÿ,  3 ִ. 켱   Ϸ ̳ ȥ
  ʿ䰡 ִ. ̳ ϸ ȥ ġ ¾   ǽ̶

 ٰ Ѵ.  ƹ ذ   ȥ  
 巯  Ѵ. ׷   ȥ ̶ ֹ 
׷   Ѵٴ ̴.  깰  츮   DZ
ȥ   ִ    ۿ ٴ ̴.  츮 
  Ѵٸ 츮   ̳  Ͽ   
̼ Ȥ   ʴ 繰   ִ ɷ  ȴٰ Ѵ. ̰
 Ͽ  θ.  ,   ޱ ̴. Ÿ 
״ Ÿ   ƴ μ, ȥ ̳̿ ñ  
    ִ ̴. ̰  ,   Ʒ ̷. 
Ÿ ̳ DZ Ű ʿ  Ƿ  Ŀ ϴ
̴. 
  ̳ νķп Ư   ׵ Ŀ  뼺̷̴. ̳
Ϻ   翡    ظ ϴ  ݴϴ 
 Դ.   Ŀ  뼺 ̷ Ͽ  и
νķ   ̴. ̳ ϸ 糪 Ȥ ϳ 繰 
 
ϰ ִٰ Ѵ. 츮     繰   
ν        鸸  ȴٴ ̴. ̷
ѵ κ İ ̿ ٰ Ǵ '' θ.  ̷ κ
Ǵ 繰    忡 󼭸      
̴.
츮  ǿ    ϰ κ   
ϴ  ´ٴ ̴.  ̳ö ϱ⸦ ҿ 
 츮 
Ǵܵ ' ' Ȥ 'Ƹ'ϴ  ǥ ؾ Ѵٰ Ѵ. ̳
̷ ̷ Ƕ θ. ̳ö ̷   ϰ 
¸ Ѵ.  츮  繰 Ͽ  ,   7 
  
ִٴ ̴. 
  1. S   P̴
  2. S   P ƴϴ
  3. S   P̱⵵ ϰ, ƴϱ⵵ ϴ
  4. S     
  5. S   P̱⵵ ϰ, ϱ Ʊ⵵ ϴ
  6. S   P ƴϳ, ϱ Ʊ⵵ ϴ
  7. S   P̱⵵ ϰ ƴϱ⵵ ϳ ϱ Ʊ⵵ ϴ
  ̻   뼺 ϰ  ϳ 常  Ǵٰ
ϴ  ̳ö Ƕ θ. ׷ ̳ ν Ǵ
ȸdz
Ұ ǹϴ  ƴϴ.  ѵ Ͽ  ϳ Ǵ
Ȯϰ   ִ ̱ ̴. ٸ  Ǵ ٸ    ׸
 ɼ  ִٴ  ǽϸ鼭 ϸ ȴٴ ̴.

  2 ̳ ̻

  ̳ ν Ǵ ̳  ٰϰ ִ. ̳ ϸ 
繰   ݵ ٰ Ѵ.  װ ٴ  ݵ
װ  ʴٴ  ݵ ļ ϸ ϳ 繰̶ 

 ٴ ̴.    繰̶  ȴٴ    ƴ
̳ ٸٰ Ѵ.    ڸ  ̴. ̳ ϸ
̷   ׵ ϰ ִ Ϳ Ͽ ִ. ڸ  ü θ.
ü     ȵ  Ͱ 쿬   
ִٰ Ѵ.   ǽ ȥ  ̸ ,,  ϴ
쿬
 ̴. ü ϴ  ̵ 쿬  ̸,  
ü ¸ ϴ ̴. ̿   , ̳ö   ʴ
 ϴ   ϰ ִٰ ϸ, ұ ϴ ͸ ϰ
Ÿö Һϴ
͸ ϴ Ϲ ص̶ Ѵ. 
  ̳ö ü   Ͱ   ʴ  뺰Ѵ. ڴ
ٽ   зȴ.  ȥ Ȥ  ȥ  ̴.  Ȥ ȥ
Ǵٽ
ع ȥ ӹڵ ȥ еǸ ӹڵ ȥ  Ͱ  
.  ȥ ,,ȭ,dz,Ĺ   ҿ    ˰
ٰ Ѵ. ݸ鿡  ȥ ̺     
   ̻ ټ . ǽ ȥ  μ  ȥ
 ̰ ֱ  ǽ   δ .  ׵
 ִ 
ֿ  ǽ  ̰  ̴. ȥ  ´ , ,
 ູ,    ȥ İ   ü̴. ӹڵ
ȥ װ ¾ ü Ͽ ߰   ü °  
 װ  ִ ü ũ  ¸ Ѵٰ Ѵ. ׷  ȥ
 
ü η ϴ ̴. ȥ ϳ  ̶ Ѵ.
  ü ü ,ð,,, ִ.  ü κе
Ǿ ־   ְ   ִ.  ̻     
κ ڶ θ ׵ տ Ͽ ü ̷. ̳öп
츮  DZ( , Ѹ )    ֵȴ. 
ڵ ޸ ,,,        
ֵ ʴ´.    ü鿡 Ҹ  ָ  ʿ
μ  簡
߸Ǿ   ִٰ Ѵ.     ƴ϶   ̴.
̳ö      Ѵ. ȥ  ٸ ü ϴ   
̰ Ѿ ִ ʼ ̴. ع ȥ    ⿡
Ѵٰ ̳ Ѵ. ̳ö  ð ü Ѵ. ð ,
,,ο, ϰ ϴ ʿ μ,   
    ߸  ˷ٰ Ѵ. ð ٸ  ü
޸   ʴ´. ֳϸ ð ϳ,      ð
 𿡳 ϱ ̴.   ü  ߸ Ͽ 
簡 ˷ٰ Ѵ.  Ӱ ̶  ϰ ϴ
ʼμ̴.
̳ö ϱ⸦ Ⱑ  ϱ ϳ ̶ Űü ̴
 Ұ ó ȥ̳ ü鵵  ʼμ ̶ ü
ʿ Ѵٴ ̴.   ʴ      
ʼ̶ ̴.  ̴.   ϰ ° 
      ִٰ Ѵ. ̻  ̳ ü
 ̻ ·öа  ٿ  ̶    ̴.
  ̳  Ż  Ͽ ̹ ̳ ٷ  
ٰ ִ. ̳ ӹ̶ ȥ   پ ִ  ϹǷ ع̶
켱   ȥ ԵǾ ޶ ϵ ؾ ϸ ̹ پ ִ 
ҸǾ Ѵ. ׷ ȥ  ޶ٰ   ᱹ  ٰ
( ,  )̹Ƿ ̳  翡  ùٸ 
(ٸ ,  ) Ѵ. ׷ Ͽ ̳ ħ  
ؿ  ŷڰ ־ ϹǷ  Ǿ Ѵ. Ű  Ŀ
 ʿ Ѵ. 츶Ƽ  ""   Ż 
Ѵ.
   ߿  ö̴.  ̹ ȥ ޶پ ִ  
ҸŰ μ  Ư ȴ. ġ Ű    
  ͵, 츮   Ͽ   ҸǾ  Ұ ȴٴ ̴.
  ع ȥ ڱ  ã ŵ 躸ٵ   ִ 
⿡ Ͽ ű⼭ Ż  Ƚİ ູ  ȴٰ Ѵ.


     16  ̸ ö

  1 ̸ö 

  εöп ö ұ ̳ʹ ޸   ϴ ķ
ֵǾ   ߿ ̸ Ÿ Ĵ   Ķ  
ִ. Ÿ ĵ ٿ  ǻ ־   ̻ Ѿ ʴ
찡  ̸ Ÿ  ٷ    ؼ ֿ
ɻ
Ͽ  öе̱ ̴.  ߵ ٴ   ŵ鿡
ġ ۰    κа ̰ ϰ   ϴ
帶 еȴ. ׷ 帶  κп   
ֿ ΰ 
ö   ٷ Ĵϻ尡 ԵǾ ִ.  κ ̶ θ
  ַ ϴ κ  Ǿ Դ. ̸ Ÿ   
κ Žϰ ϴ  ǥ ϴ ķμ, ̸Ĵ  κ, 
 Ѵ Ͽ Ǫٹ̸ θ, ŸĴ  κ Ѵ
Ͽ Ÿ̸ ҷԴ. Ȥ      常 
̱
 ī̸ 帶̸ θ⵵ Ѵ. 1)'̸'  'ɱ'
 .  ̸ ϸ Ǫٹ̸縦 Īϸ Ÿ̸
Ÿ θ.
  Ŀ    ̳ 帶 ؼ ϰ иϰ 
 ƴ϶,  Ͽ Ǿ Դ. ׷  ð    

Ȯϰ ʿ   κ  ߸  Ͽ  ùٸ
Թ ã  ϰ Ǿ.  ߸ Ȱ ľ߶ ҷ ̰ ߿
  ʹ , ùٸ  Թ ٷ  ijķ
ϰ  ̴.   Թ ɵ ü ϰ ϴ ۾
ӵǾ ̰ ̸ĸ ϰ  ̴. ̸ âڴ 
2 ι Ǵ ̴̹Ϸ  , ٺ "̸"μ
± 1 Ŀ  ¸ ߰   ֵǰ ִ.
"̸" ٸ      Ǿ ־  üμ
ϱ ƴ.
ϴ ּ     5 濡 ٶ󽺹پƹο Ͽ 
̴.  ȿ 츮 긣Ƽī  "̸"  ؼ Ϻκ
οǰ ִ  , ű⼭ 긣Ƽī ұ ö ظ ϰ ִ

 װ Ƹ ̸öп  ̸  ڷ ֵȴ.
ٶ󽺹ٹֵ ̸ö  Ͽ ٶ󽺹پƹ  ּ
ϰ ̸ö   Ŀ ֵĸ  ϰ Ǿ.
̸Ŀ ö ̷ ο       ֵǸ
׵ Ŀ ̸ö  ̷   ߴ. ī
ּ Brhati Ҹ  ּ   īŸ ̽ Rjuvimala ָ
. ״  ī ̸ؼ  伭 Prakaranapaancika .
  ٶ󽺹ٹ ּ 3 ؼ
ߴ.  Slokavaarttika, Tantravarttika, ׸ Tuptika 3̴. 
Ͽ ٳ̽ ͼ Vidhiviveka, Mimamsanukramani,
Tanyravarttika ߴ. ׷ ״ ߿ ī  Ÿö
ߴ.  ܿ  ֵĿ  ڵ Ͽ ī
ĸ еϰ Ǿ. 
 ұ  ߿ ٶ󹮱 ߴٰ ϸ,   Ͽ ұ
 Ŷϰ ϰ ִ.  ī Ҿ ε ұ
 ū   öڷ 򰡵ǰ ִ.   ī ߽
Ͽ ̸ö 밭 캸, ʿ信  л  ϵ Ѵ. 

  2 ̸ νķ

  "̸" ٰ ϴ   ùٷ ϵ ϴ ؼ 
ϴ   ֵ   ִ.  ̸ö '̸', ɱ
 Ͽ    Ǿ, ̸öп  б ̷
ŸĿ ޾Ƶ鿩 Ǿ. ̸翡 ϸ   ǹ̸ Ȯ
 5  ľ Ѵ.
  1.   Ȯ
  2. ̿  ǹ 
  3. ݷ,  Ÿ 
  4. ,  
  5.   ٸ κп Ͽ  
  ̷   ܿ, ̸ ٺ ö ɻ  ٰ
ϴ  ǹ ̷ ޹ħ ִ  ִ.   ǹ ؾ ϸ,
 Ͽ      Ǵ°   ٷ ̴.
츮 帶 ̹  ְ   ſ  
ü
Ű ҰŴϿ ̷    Ͽ  翩ο ϰ
 ڵ    ̶  Ҵ. ̷ 
̸ö   ϴ  ְ ʿ伺   
 ϰ  ̴. ׷Ƿ   ü  ǰϿ 
ǹ   ʴ    ޾Ƶ鿩 ۿ  ̴. ׷ 

  Ǵ ̸ ٿ ϴ ǹ  ǹ ϸ õ  ް
ȴٴ     ִ° ϴ  ڿ  Ǵ ̴. ⼭
츮 ̸ ν̷п ϰ ȴ.
  ̸ ùٸ  μ ,,,ط, Ѵ.
,   츮   ˿ Ͽ   
νĹμ,  ܰ ȴٰ Ѵ. ù° ܰμ  ü 
 ھƿ к  Ͼٰ Ѵ.  繰 ݿ   ǽ̳
Ǵܾ  縸 ־ νĴ̴ܰ.   μ к 
̷ٰ Ѵ.   ǹ̸ ľϰ ϴ  Ѵ. ׷
̸ö ϱ⸦ ι° ܰ迡 и ˷ Ǵ  ̹ ù°
ܰ迡 Ͻ ˷
ִٰ Ѵ. 츮    迡 ߾   кϴ
ͻ  ο ̳ Ӽ οϴ  ƴ϶ Ѵ.  νķп
ϰ ִ кۿ ְ   ʰ ִ ̴.  츮
 ǽϰ
ִ  ұ ϴ ó     繰  Ư
νϴ ͵ ƴϸ, ׷ٰ ؼ Ÿöпó ƹ Ư Ӽ 
縸 ǽϴ ͵ ƴ϶ Ͽ ̸ö ߰  ϰ ִ.
  ̶ 翡  Ͱ ſ   £ Ͽ Ͽ 
缺 ƴ ̴. (߷)  ش öп ̴.
  ̻   νĹ  迡 ǰ μ ̸翡 ϴ 
ʴ     ִ  ƴϴ.  ̸ö  ߿
νĹ ϳ ǰϰ ִ.  ΰ Ͱ ΰ   
ִ. Ĵ ڸ ϰ ֵĴ ڸ  Ѵ. ٴ ̸öп
ϸ ΰ ̴. ٴ ſ Ͽ  ͵ ƴϰ   
Ͽ  ͵ ƴϱ
̴. ׷ٸ  Ͽ ̸ö   ϴ°? ̸ö
  ü   ٴ  ϱ Ͽ  Ͽ 
Ư ̷е ϰ Ǿ.
  ̸öп ϸ ̶ ܼ  Բ μ  Ҹμ 
ƴϴ.   Ҹ  ̷ ִ ڵ鿡 ִٰ Ѵ. ׸
ڷμ    Ͽ     ü  ϸ
ð ʿ   ̴. ̶ Ҹ ǥ ȵ  ׽
  ִ ̴.   ΰ̳ ſ Ͽ   ƴ
  ̴. ̸ ̿   Ϲݿ  ̷ Ͽ ᱹ 
 Ϸ ̴.
  Ӹ ƴ϶ ̸翡 ϸ  ǹ̵ ΰ ̳  Ͽ ־
 ƴϸ, ׷ٰ  濡 ٰ ͵ ƴϰ,  ڿ ̶ Ѵ.
    ̰  ̱ ̴. ̸翡 ϸ 質
ΰ ʰ ,   Ѷ ΰ  Ͽ  
 ƴ϶  ó 繰鿡 Ͽ ̹  ߴٴ ̴. 
̶  ϴ ̸,    Ͽ ǥ ̴.  
Ÿ°, ƴϸ ( ) Ÿ° Ͽ ̸ö  ϱ
 ϴ  ϱ⺸ٴ  ʴ  Ѵٰ Ѵ. 
    ɵ  ϰ DZ ̴.
  ̸öп   ,    繰 ǥ  Ӹ ƴ϶
ൿ ϴ  ִٰ Ѵ. ̰  ̸ö   ٺ
 ݿϴ ̷̴. Ĵϻ带 ϰ  ü ̸翡 ϸ
츮  ǹ  μ,    ̷ ǹ ϰ
ִٴ ̴.
  ν ټ° μ ̸ö ط̶  . ط̶ 
ϴ  ϱ Ͽ ݵ ûǴ, ׷  ʴ  
ʿ  μ   Ѵ. ̷   ޾߸ Ѵٴ
̴.
̸ö  ް  ִ   ƴ϶  ġ   ü̴.
      ʴ , ̶  ھƿ ϸ,  
ʿ   ϴ  ´ٰ Ѵ.   ü 񵿾ȿ
     ޾Ƶ    ´ٴ 
  ȵǰ   ְ ȴٴ ̴. ٽ ؼ ̶ 
    Ͽ   õ󿡼    Ӽ
ϱ
Ͽ,  Ͽ ڵ ھƿ  Ǵ   ʴ μ
ǰ  ̴.
   ̸ö ֵĴ ̶   ν 
Ѵ.    Ѵٴ  ƴ  ϳ   ν
̶ ̴. 츮   ʴ´ٴ   ؼ   .
ֳϸ  ʴ  츮  ڱؽų   ̴. ׷ٰ
߷п Ͽ    ִ ͵ ƴϴ. ׷ ߷ Ϸ 츮 ̹
  ̿ ֿ踦 ˰ ־ Ѵ. ׷ ̰ Ṯ
ذ  ϰ ִ ̴.   ̳ ߷п Ͽ νĵ 
.
׷ٰ ̳  Ͽ   ִ ͵ ƴϴ. ̶ ؼ ƴ
͵ ƴϰ  ٰؼ ƴ ͵ ƴϱ ̴. ᱹ 츮  ü
 ƴ  ν μ ؾ Ѵٴ ̴. ̰ ̶
θ ̴.
׷ ̶ ؼ   ˷ ִ  ƴϴ.   ִ
Ȳε ұϰ  ʴ 쿡  Ǵ ̶ Ѵ.
  ̸  Ÿ缺 Ͽ öа  ٸ ظ  ִ. ̸翡
      ü  Ÿ缺 ϰ ־  Ÿ缺
Ͽ ٸ   Ÿ ʿ  ʴ´ٴ ̴.   
װͿ   ڿ ߻Ų.  ߿ ǽ ϴ 찡  
ְ ׷ Ǹ 츮 ߷п Ͽ   Ʋȴٴ    ִ. ׷

Ÿ缺 ϴ ڸϿ ߷ ʿ  , 츮 켱 װ ϰ
ൿѴٴ ̴. ̷   쿡    츮 ǽ
  
  ϴ ϰ ൿؾ Ѵٴ ̴.   ڸϴ. 
̸Ĵ ٸ ǽ   ϱ⸸ ϸ   
  ʿ ٴ ̴. ̷ ̸ м ν 
Ÿ缺 ̷̶
θ. ̿  ̸Ĵ   ̷е鵵  ⼭ Ѵ.
  ν  Ÿ缺  Ͽ ī  νķа ϰ
ν 3 ϰ ִ.    θ 巯    ̿
ÿ װ ü ü 巯ٰ Ѵ.  ī ϸ 
 ھ ν,  ν, ׸ ν ν̶   ν ϰ
ִ. ⼭ ھƴ  νĿ ־  üμ ˷   
δ νĵ
ʴ´ٰ Ѵ. ׸ ھƴ İ  θ 巯 ڸ  簡
ƴ϶ Ѵ. Ÿö ھư ٸ  ϳ.
      Ÿ缺 ϸ鼭 īʹ ޸ 
 ν   ʴٰ . ׿ ϸ  θ ν  .
ġ հ  θ ǵ帱   Ͱ  ̴. ̶
ھ ·μ ھư  ƴ  ۿ̴.  θ 巯 
 
   ھƿ Ͽ ˷ٴ Ƿκ  ߸Ǿ ˷
̴.   ģϰ Ȥ ̹ ƴ  Ÿ 츮 ̷κ
̷     ־ ȴٴ ̴.

  3 ̸ ̻

  ̸     켱 ϰ  ȥ  ŭ 
Ѵ. ׸  踦 ϰ ִ ҵ Ǵ   Ģ
ۿϰ ִ.  , ȥ   μ ¾ Ǵ ü
 ϴ   Ǿ  μ  Ǿ ִ
̴.
  ̸ ̻ ü  ·ö   ޾  
ϰ ִ. ׷   ߿ ̴ ·öп  ϰ ִ
 հ հ ı, ׸ ڿ ȥ 踦 Ű â
縦
 ̸ ׷  ʿ伺 Ѵ. α Ϲ ޾Ƶ̴
  ֱ â ı ݺ  ʴ´. 谡 ׽
ϰ ִٴ   ȥ ֱ   Ѵ. 

ڿ ϸ         ٰ Ѵ. 
ڵ    ൿѴٰ   . ̶  
 ȥ ü 迡 ̸, ȥ  ڱ    ü
ϰ  ̶ ̴.
      â Ŷϰ ϰ ִ. ״  â
 Ƽ   ߴٴ    ٰ Ѵ.  
 ʾҴٸ â    ,  ־ٸ  â 
 ̹
 ߴٴ ̴.  â ⵵   . ֳϸ  
ó ߴ  ƴϱ ̴.    ˾  
踦 âߴٴ  뼭  ̶ Ѵ.  ܼ ڱ ſ
Ͽ 踦 âߴٸ ״  ູ ٴ Ͱ Ǹ  װ
ٻ Ͽ
־⸸ ϴ  ȴ.  ̷ Ÿö 嵵 ݹϿ ϱ⸦,
࿡ ڰ  ϴٸ 赵 ؾ  ̸ ׷ ¿
     â   .  ٸ    Ųٸ
常    .    ڿ ̶ 
   ŵ  ٰ Ѵ.   Űö 
Ѵ. ״ ϱ⸦  â   ° 
̶ Ѵٸ ʿ  ʷϴ ΰ ̶  µ  
 
ߴ° ݹѴ.
  ̸ö ְ Ѵٴ ǹ̿ ŷ    Ǵ
ھ Ҹ꼺  ۿ .  ̸ö ھ ü ϴ
ұ ظ Ŷϰ Ѵ. ұ ϸ ھƶ   
      信  شٰ Ѵ. ׷ ó Ͱ
     ü       ̳
ȣۿ Ұϴٰ Ѵ. Ӹ ƴ϶    ڱⰡ  ൿ
 ´ٴ     ո  ٰ Ѵ. 

 Ͽ  ü ٸ ü Ű  ִ° ǽɽ  ȸ
͵ DZ ƴٰ Ѵ.  ȥ 縦 ϱ Ͽ  
Ѵ. ü ҵ    ׵    
Ѵ. ü ϳ ü ü ͵ װ װ ٽ 
Ÿ  Ͽ Ѵٴ  Ѵٰ Ѵ. 츮 ' ' 
 ϴ ͵  
ƴ϶  Ѵ.  ̶   ͵   ü ֱ
̶ Ѵ.
  츮 ̹  ̸öп      Ÿ缺  ִ.
׸ ī  θ 巯 ڸ ϰ ִٰ Ѵ.
׷ ̸Ŀ ϸ ھ ü ׷ ̳    ʴ. 
ھ
 ڸ  ׷ٰ ؼ öпó    
 ٰ Ѵ. ī ϸ ھƴ 츮  νȰ ʿ
Ǹ ̷ νȰ Ͽ 巯ٰ Ѵ.   ƴ νȰ
־
ھƴ   üμ ׽ 巯ٴ ̴. ׷߸ ν ' ν'
Ǵ ̴. ̿ Ͽ  ھǽ  ǽ ׽ ϴ 
ƴ϶
Ѵ.  츮  ھƿ ؼ    ھǽ 
μ 츮 ھƸ   ִٴ ̴. ׷ Ĵ  ؿ ݴѴ.
ֳϸ
ٷ  ھǽ̶  ü Ұϱ ̴. ھư ǽ ü ü
ÿ   ٴ ̴. ü ü  縳  
̴.

  4.Ż

  ̸Ĵ    ̿   ñ ɻ 
ö̴.   信 ־  ùٸ  
ν  õ  ̻ ϴ  ظ  ־.
׷, ߿ Ÿ  ޾ ھ Ż,
 ü ȸ ӹκ   ְ  ̻
ϰ Ǿ. Ż̶ ھư    ü 
ϰ ϴ  Ѵ.
׷ ھ ¿ ƹ ν̳ 赵   .
񿭵  ʴ´. ھƴ ̳   ü    
ʱ ̴.
  ̸Ĵ Ż ̸ μ ھƸ ƴ İ ǹ
 ؽ  ϰ ϴ  Ѵ.
ٰٵŸ ϴ karma-yoga õ ߽ϴ ̴.
׷ν ̸ö      ǹ
Ż  䱸 ÿ Ű ̴.



        17. ̷ Ÿö

     1. ī  Ÿö
Ÿ   veda anta Ȥ ̶  Ĵϻ带
Ű ̴. ׷ ÿ Ÿ  ñ̰   Žϴ
Ĵϻ ö ü ؼϰ Ų öü踦 ĪѴ. Ÿö
ε  ö    ڵ ԰  ִ
öμ   1000 Ͽ ٸ  ĵ Ȱ ־ еϰ
 ö̴. Ÿö  ٺμ Ĵϻ ü ̰, Ĵϻ
ö ̳ ٸ ֵǴ ٰٵŸ  Ĵϻ پ
ö ϰ ü ܸϰ ϴ Ÿ Ȥ 帶濡 ϰ ִ.
帶   1 ε ι Ǵ ٴٶ߳ ڷ 
    4-5濡 ̸  · ϼ  .
ٶ帶濡 ϸ    常  ڰ ִ.
常   ټ ٰϸ ΰ   ̷е
ټ Ҿ  ٰŰ   ִ. 常 ְ, ΰ , 
  ü,  ()μ  ѺҸ ̴.
  Ӱ ͸ Ű μ  ̴.
常  ̱⵵ ϸ,  â̱⵵ ϴ. 常 
Ͽ 踦 ϸ, ̷   󼼰  μ
常 ٸ ʴ. 谡 常κ    ( ,
ϴ), dz(ٶ), ȭ(), (), ()  Ǿ ,  ټ
Ұ ٽ 常 ư ,   ҸѴٰ Ѵ.
 â Ӱ ͸(ư Ҹ)   ݺȴ.
ξ(   ϴ  ϴ) 常 κ̸
װͰ  ٸ  (     )̷  Ǯ
ϰ ִ.   ( ,  ,  )   ƴϰ  
 ޴ ̴. λ ñ  常   Ż ִ.
Ż  μ 常    ϰ 
常    ڴ   ŵ  
Ŀ 常 ̸ 常 Ѵ. ̷ Ż  ڴ  â
  ϰ ڿ   ϼ  ٰ Ѵ.
  츮 ̹ Ĵϻ ö ı⿡ , ٺ Űsamkhya
Ǿ ҰŴϿ Űö  ̿ 
Կ , Ĵϻ   ̿ ݹϿ Ĵϻ
 Ͽ  ȣϷ  ־  ȴ. 帶
̷ Űö ŷ ̿  ϰ ִ ̴.
  帶   ̰ ؼ  üμ ϱ
 κ   ִ.  ļ  öڵ  
ּ , ̵ ּ   ٸ ö ؼ ص
̹Ƿ ڿ Ÿö ü  ּ ߽ Ͽ 
ĵ ǰ Ǿ.
 Ÿöڵ 踦   ٺ  ٸ ü 
ӿ ľϷ ٿ ظ ôϰ پ 󼼰 Ŀ
 ϳ ñ̰  簡 ִٴ Ͽ  .
   ñ  󼼰,     ȥ
踦 ϴ°  Ÿöڵ ȣ ̸ ְ
ִ ̴. ñ (常̶ θ) Բ  ٸ ü
鵵 ϸ 踦  ü ȣ ۿ ϵ 常 ׵
ʿϰ ׵ ʿϰ ׵ ϰ ϴ   ϴ 
ذ ִ°ϸ, ٸ δ      
常 پ缺  ڱ⸦  μ Ÿ ·μ ϴ
ذ ִ. ׷ϸ  ٸ 忡 پ缺  Ϲ
 常  ִ ϰ , ׷ ˰    
 ʴ  ľϴ  ִ ̴.
  ϴ 常 ּ   ǰ    
 800濡  ī 帶ҷμ     
°  ȣ ؼ̴. ׷ ī ּ Ͽ 츮  
帶濡   ؼ ذ Ͽ    ִ.
Ư ī ö ̷(ƴ ,  , ) ö  
Ÿ  ؼ ־   ִ. 츮 ̹  帶 ü
ö  ī ̷ öа  ٸ ̸  ְ 
 ̷ ؼ ٵ   Ĵgovindapada Ͽ, Ȥ
, Ĵ gaudapada ö     
ִ. Ĵٴ Űīīmandukya-karika Ű Ĵϻ
ö ٷ  ڷμ, װ ״ 츮 ƴ  ó ö
 ̷ Ÿö ϰ ִ ̴. ī  Ű īī 
ּ  ű⼭ ī  ̷ ö Ĵٿ Ͽ μ
ãٰϿ Ĵٿ    Ÿ ִ.
  Ĵٴ ºұ ( ,  )̳ Ļ  
 ڷμ,   츮 ̵ ұöп ϴ ̳  
 ߰  ִ.  ״ Ĵϻ ö Ÿ ħ ġѴٰ
Ͼ ó δ. ״ ü ϴ 󼼰   Ұ
 ȯ Ͽ Ÿ ̸    پ缺̳ ̿ 볳
ʴ´ٰ Ѵ.  ñ 忡      ' ִ 
̸ ܺ 質 ӿ Ÿ 質  츮  һμ 
̶ Ѵ. ġ  ӿ  ̶ ϴ Ͱ  ̴ .
 迡 ְ ̳  ü ü鵵 , 굵 ΰ 
, ӹڵ 絵  Ż ϴ ڵ .   ϳ Ʈ 
 ̴. Ĵٴ Ʈ   Ѵ. ξƴ   
 ѵ Ͱ  ̳ ᱹ ϳ Ʈ  ϴ ̴.  ڴ 䰡 
 Ͽ ̿  νĿ Ѵٴ ̴.
  Ĵٴ ̷ 
常   Ÿö  ̴. ''  ̹ "Ÿ
Ÿ Ĵ " 'ٰٵ Ÿ' Ÿ , ű⼭ ߶ 
 θ پ缺  ϴ â  ǹߴ. ׷    ߴ
νְ , Ȥ 츮 ̴  ȯμ ϰ Ǿ, ̰
Ÿٿ ͼ   Ȥ ߼ ǰ  ̴. ī
̷ Ÿ ؼ ٷ   ǥϴ ̴.

  2 ī ̷ Ÿ ö

  Ĵ ö Ͽ  ̾޾ ̷ Ÿ ö 뼺Ų
 ī󿴴. ״ "긣ϵ ƶϾī Ĵϻ"  ֿ Ĵϻ忡
ּ   "ٰٵ Ÿ" ּ . ׷  ö
 ߿  "帶"  ּ "帶"μ ⼭ ״
 Ÿм  鼭 ̷ Ÿö  Ȯ  ̴.
״ ε μ ε   ϰ ٴϸ鼭 ڱ м Ͽ.
Ӹ ƴ϶ ״ ڱ öп ԰  õ Ͽ ұ ó
 Ⱑڵ ü   õ Ҿ 常 
߱Ͽ. ī ұ  Ͽ   ؼμ ٶ󹮱
£ ũ ⿩԰ ÿ ̹   ִ ұ ū Ÿ ϰ  ̴.
  ī ϸ  ϴ      پ缺 ʿ
常̶  ̴. װ͸  ̴. 常 
̸ ƹ        ü̴.  常
Ĵϻ  ΰ  ھƷμ (tad tvam asi, aham brahma asmi) 
 ϴ ڸ   ̴.   常 Ӽ ƴ϶ 常 
ü̴. μ 常 Ȥ Ʈ    ھƷμ  
 ǽϰų     Ȯ ̴. ֳϸ ϴ  ü
 ھƸ  ϰ ֱ ̴. ÿ ھƴ  ν ü̱ 
 ȭϿ   ִ  ƴϴ. ھƴ 츮   ۿ 
νȰ Ͽ  Ŀ ׽  ߾ ְ ִ ΰ  μ
 ü  ν      Ѵ.
  ī ־   ɷ   ,   ִ 
Ѵ. 'ȴ'      ٸ  迡 Ͽ 
巯ٴ ̴.   ޼  ޿  Ŀ 缺 ϰ
Ǵ ̴. ̷ ǹ̿ ī ϸ ھƴ     
̴. 츮 ̹   ִ ھ   ¿  Ĵϻ öε
 Ÿ ϴ ͵ ٷ   ̴.   ִ ¿  ٰ
ִ ¿,  鿡  ִ ̰ų  ̰ų ϰ 
  ϰ ִ μ ھƾ߸  ̴.
  ī ϸ ̷ ھư  ٸ ƴ 常̿, 常  
Ѵ. ׷ٸ 츮  տ ̴ ϻ  پ  踦 ī 
ϴ°? ī ϸ  ϳ  常 츮  ȯ 
  ̸   󼼰 Ÿ ̰ ȴٰ Ѵ.  
常   ʴ´ٴ ̴. ī ̷  常
̶ θ. 踦 常κ     常
 Ǵ ̷̴.   常    
̳ ڴ 踦 常   ڴ 踦 常
  ̰ ִ ̴.    ο ̹ Ѵٰ ϱ
  ֵdz, 常  θ ϰ 
 ̶  ݸ鿡, 常      ̴.
  ī ϸ  絵 ƴϰ 絵 ƴ ϱ,   ̴.
ֳϸ 常  ̸  常 ٰؾ ϴ  
   . ׷ ÿ  󼼰踦 ŸԲ ϹǷ  
  ̴.   ī ϸ 츮 Ͽ  繰 ϰԲ
ϸ,   ٸ 繰 Բ ϴ Ź ִٰ Ѵ.   ο 
濡    ϴ Ͱ ٴ ̴.  ϴ 
常 Ȥ Ʈ ε   Ͽ    踦
    ٴ ̴.
  ī ϸ    Ͽ 츮  ƹ Ӽ 
常 踦 âϰ ϴ μ νѴٰ Ѵ.  
 ΰ ɵ̸  ٸ  °   
ȣϴ ̴.  ī 常, ƹ Ӽ   常
Ӽ  󼼰踦 âϴ    常   Ѵ.
ڴ  ̳ Ӽ̳ ѵ   Ƿ  ؼ
츮 δ  ǥ    ̴. Ĵϻ忡 
 " ƴϰ  ƴϴ"  ǥۿ     ̴.
  Ͽ     üǴ  ̴. ݸ鿡 
ΰ μ  Ǹ Ӽ  ϰ ,  ÿ ѵ
 ̴.   ΰ ΰ 迡    츮  
 Ǵ ̴. ī ̷ ' 常' ' 常' ϰ
 δ   Ͽ      ȥϱ⵵ Ѵ.
    常,   ñ  ְƸ   ѵ ξƷ
ŸԲ Ѵ. ξƶ ٽ ؼ ְư   Ʒ Ÿ Ǵ
  ھƵ ̴. ġ س  ϳ  뿡 ĥ  
Ÿ Ͱ ٰ Ѵ. Ȥ Ѿ    ȿ ѵ  Ÿ
̴ Ͱ  Ѵ. ̷ Ƹ ѵ ξƷ ŸԲ ϴ 
츮   DZٰ   ΰ  ̸,  ΰ
  һ ̴.   ϴ  츮 ѵ  ھư
 ̸ δ  ھ  常 ü ޾Ƽ Ż 
ȴٴ ̴.
  ̻   常  常, ְƿ ξ   İ
   , Ȥ ñ     ʷѴ. 
 ī ö Ͽ  Ͽ ν ü ؾ߸ 
̴.  ñ     ξƿ â   
        ξƿ â,  Ż,
ȸ   ϴ ̶ ̴. ī ̿   ߼
̷п ԰ؼ ٿ 'Ÿ' '帶'  ö Ͽ ؼ 
־ ̴. и ٴ ξ, , ȸ, Ż, â,   缺
ϴ κ   ִ.  ٶ󹮱μ ī ̵鵵  
 ̹Ƿ     ̴. ᱹ ״ ü ԰ؼ
  ذߴ ̴. ,   ñ  ̲  
ġ  μ, ٴ ڸ  ġ ִٴ ̴. ᱹ  ü
پ缺 迡 ϴ μ    Ͽ 츮 Ͽ  ϰ
ٿ νĿ ϰ ϴ ̴.
  ̻   󼼰  پ缺 ϰ ְƸ Ϲ
缺 ϴ ī ö ̷ Ÿ ö̶ θ.
  ⼭ Ѱ   ñ    󼼰谡  ̶
   ' '̳ '䳢 '   ٰŰ  
ٸٴ ̴.   常̶ 縦 ٰŷ Ͽ Ÿ 
 ǹ ȯ ƴ ̴. ī  ұ ö ְ 
ôѴ. ī ϸ ܰ谡  ̱ ϳ, öп ϴ Ͱ
  μ ְ  ƴ϶  ϴ ̶ ̴.
 ܼ 󿡸 ϴ  ƴ϶  Ǵ ̱ ̶
Ѵ.

  λ ְ ǥ  Ż ִ. ī ϸ Ż  Ŀ
ؼ ϴ.   ſ  赵  Ż   ׵
ñ  ٰ μ 츮  迡  Ŵ ̴.
  ̳ ߷п Ͽ ־ ͵ ƴϴ.   , 
 ηκ ٰ Ѵ.   Ư  Ĵϻ
ħ ߿ϴ. ī ϸ ٴ ü  ſ Ͽ  μ
 ̶ Ѵ. ̰     Ǵ ̴.
츮 ̷ ̷ Ͽ īö 뼺    ִ ̴.
   Ͽ  ο Ҿ   , Ư Ĵϻ
 ϰ ϰ ݺϴ ͵  ȴٰ Ѵ.
  ξư  ְƶ  ƴ , 󼼰 پ缺 ȸ 谡 ȯ
̶    ıѴٰ Ѵ.   ڿԴ   ʰ
  ü ̻  ʴ ̴. ׿Դ  Ѿ ǹ
 ʴ´ٰ Ѵ. ī ϸ    ¿. ׷ ̹
  ߾ϱ  ,    ǰ ִ  ı  ٰ Ѵ.
   ȹ ڶ    а Ѵٰ Ѵ.
ġ  ΰ ׸   Ŀ   ؼ ư Ͱ
 Ѵ. ׷  ڴ   ı   װͿ Ͽ
̻   ʴ´. ̰ Ż ̸ Ŀ μ ü 
 ŻŻ ϴ ̴.
     ڴ 常 ڱ ھƷ  ϰ â ϰ
Ѵ. ī ϸ ̷  ȥ Ŀ ŵ  Ͽ 
常 Ѵ.  ´  Ż ƴ  ع Ͽ 
İ Ż ̸ٰ Ѵ. ̺ٵ   ܰ   ĵ  ĵ
 μ    ̸, ̵ Ŀ    ޿
Ͽ ű⼭      Ǵٽ  ¾ٰ Ѵ.  
ȸ ü Ǵ  ξ̸,  ξƴ  һ  ΰ
ϰ Ŀ Ѵٰ Ѵ. 츮 ģ ü Ŀ  ҵ
ǵư ξƴ ٸ ΰ Բ ϴ ̴. ̷ ΰ鿡
DZٰ , ,  ִ. ⼭ ̶  ü 
ϴ  ƴ϶ ׵ ɷ Ȥ  ϸ, ü ĸ Ŀ
 Ǵ 'ü  ϴ ̼ ҵ' ǹѴ. ̷ ΰ
츮 Ż   ξƵ鿡 Ǿ ٴѴٴ ̴.
̹ۿ ξƴ ̷    Ǹ ϴ ΰ ϰ ִٰ Ѵ.

  3. ī  ̷ Ÿö

  ī ̷ ö εöл翡 ־ ó   
 ״ ε   󰡷μ ߾ӹ޾ Դ.   ö 
 ڵ ڵ鿡 Ͽ Ȱ   Ǿ   鿡
ٽ  ּ  Ǿ.
  ī  ĵ帶Ĵ(9) "帶" ó 4  ī
ּ  "ĵī" ߿    ּ
īƮ(1100) "ĵī"  ϳ ָ Ҵ.
 ī  ٶ īö ü ٷ
"̽ī߽̾˵" ī "긣ϵƶī Ĵϻ" ּ
 ָ . ī  ϳ  Ƴٱ⸮ "帶"
Ͽ "ľߴϸ" ָ ߴ.  9 Ƽ̽
"ϸƼ"  ּ Ἥ īö  ؼߴ. 
θٳֳƮ ī ҿ  ߷ "ũĻī'
伭 ߴ.
  ̵ ī ڵ鿡 ־ ǵ ߿  ϳ , Ǵ
ȯ  ġ  . ̵ ü  ȯ Űö
ũƼ  پ缺 踦 Ű  â  Ҵ.
ī ־  ܼ ׷  󼼰谡 Ÿ Ǵ  ̾ٴ
Ϳ ߾   ī ڵ   üȭؼ   
  ִ. ׵     踦 ŸԲ ϹǷ  
  ׷ٰ    ٰ Ѵ. ֳϸ  Ͽ  
Ǹ ᱹ 常  ̱ ̴.  ̵ ̷ öڵ
      ̶ Ѵ.    , Ȥ 
 ΰ ̴. 츮 ⼭   ѷ  öڵ  ڼ
  .            ִ.
ϳ  常 ٰŸ ΰ 常  ϴ  ̶ ̰,
ٸ ϳ  ξƿ ٰϸ 常    Ǵ
  ٴ ̴. ٳ̽ Ƽ̽  Ÿöڴ
ڸ ϰ  Ƽ ּ ̸  'ϹƼ'Ķ θ.
ݸ鿡 ٶ, ĵ帶Ĵ, īƮ, 縣곪Ʈ  ڴ
 ظ ϰ  ̵ īƮ ּ ̸ 
'ٶ'Ķ θ. 常 ٰŸ дٰ ϴ ̷   
常 ü ã´ٴ ̳,     常 ٰ
   常 ü  پ缺 å   ְڴ°̴.
ݸ鿡  ǰ ξ̸ 常 ϴٰ   ,  
常  ϳ   ֵǴ ̸ ε ȯ
Ѵٴ ̴.  ξư ̹  깰ε   ξƿ
ϰڴĴ ̴.    ᱹ 󼼰踦 常  
帶  ִ ٺ   ִ ̴.
  ī ̷ ö  ϸ(A.D 1150)   ĩī(A.D
1220) Ͽ Ӱ  Ǿ.   ߿ ö 
' ̹'̰, ڴ ϸ ٰ ּ  Ӹ ƴ϶
' '̶   . ̵ Ư ̷ 忡 
 迡 ־  ֵ  ؼ ö ߴ.
ϸ   ϰ ڽ ö   ϱ⺸ٴ
   ֵ   ߸ ı  ַϿ.
ᱹ   常  󼼰  ֿ  ʿ 
̴. 󼼰   һ̹Ƿ    , ׷ 
常 ٰŷ Ͽ и Ÿ ̴ ̹Ƿ    ,
Ұ  ̴.  ϸ ϸ ̷ ̰ Ұ
迡 Ͽ  ָ äϿ м ϰ Ѱ踦  ϴ  ñ
ǹϸ ڱ    ̴. ϸ   ö
ϴ  ֵ ǿ  ϰ Ÿġ  , ᱹ  ֵ
    ϴ  ƴ϶ ̸, ̰ 󼼰 ü ñ
     Ѵٴ ̴. ϸ ڽ DZ ؼ
 ö ǰ ᱹ ü   ϸ, ñ   ޾ƾ
ϰ, ü ü  󼼰迡 Ÿ ̶ Ѵ. ϸ
ö ֵ Կ ־ ַ پ߳  ǵ  Ͽ 
ǵ Ÿġ  Ϸ  ݸ鿡,   ĩī  ư ֵ
ǻӸ ƴ϶ ֵ  ü Ϸ Ͽ. ״ ̷ ı
ĻӸ ƴ϶  ' ' ̷ Ÿ  ߿ 鿡 Ͽ
ڽ ؼ ϰ ִ. װ ߰ö ü ̸  ֵ
κ ȫȣϰ  ָ  ̴. ״ ϱ⸦ ü 
 󼼰迡 Ȱϴ   ϴ ̹Ƿ ñδ ̰
 ϳ̴ٶ Ѵ. ׷ 츮  ӿ ִ  츮    
ۿ  ü ǽ  ٴ ̴. ̷ ش 󼼰谡 䳢 ̳
 ɰ   ٰž 簡 ƴ϶,  ̱ ϳ 常̶
翡 ٰϿ Ÿ ̶ ̷ Ÿö  ԰ ̴.


      3  ö

    18 ̷ Ÿö

    1. ̷  
  ī ̷ Ÿö   , Ĵϻ ö
ϰִ ü ؼ    εö   ַ
ϰ Ǿ. ׷ ī ö  鿡  
 ϰ ־. ù° ΰ ſ  žִ ī
öп    ñ  ٰ  ƴϰ 
 ԰ ̶ ̴.  ſ   ž 
ְ  ϴ  α ڵ鿡Դ ī ö ſ
Ҹ ̾.  ̷ ö    
ΰ Ű  ȥ̶   ȯ  常
ȯ Ÿ  , ȥ  ӹڰ ȸ ͵ ᱹ
ȯ̸ Ż   ̴. ī  ̶ ᱹ 
  ° ߱ ñ ǹϰ  
ʷѴٴ  ϱ  ̴.
  츮 ̹ ı Ĵϻ "ٰٵ Ÿ" öл󿡼 ٽŰ
񽴴ſ  ž Ÿ ִ  ҰŴϿ   
߽  žӿ     ȮǾ ߼ε Ȱ
ϰ Ǿ. ±  200濡 ü ϼǾٰ 
"ϹŸ" "󸶾߳"  ÿ ̷ žӿ ݿǾ
, ٵ Ǫ󳪶 Ҹ ο  ӿ 
ǥ  Ǿ.  Ǫ󳪶 ó, ٸ ϴ ĵ
ۿ ü, ŵ  ε 躸 "" ٷ ִ ̾. 
׷ ٽ 񽴴 ڵ  鿡ٰ  ׵
ž  ΰϿ  1000   Ǫ󳪵
Ͽ. ׸ ̵ Ǫ󳪵  ־ ٺٵ 
 κ α  Ȱ ϰ  ̴.
Ư 񽴴  񽴴 ȭ ֵǴ  ũ
̾߱⸦  ׿    ϵ "񽴴 Ǫ"
"ٰŸ Ǫ" Ͽ  ȭǰ Ǿ.
Ӹƴ϶ Ÿ  ڵ 񽴴  ȭŵ鿡  ž
 Ͽ   Ż  񽴴ž
ϴ  ū  ߴ. 񽴴  ڵ ŷο
  ſ ̳  ϰ ׵ Ż ð
 ϰ ϴ  Ǫǽ ״.
  ⼭ 츮  Ǫ ǥ μ "񽴴 Ǫ"
  캼 ʿ䰡 ִ. ֳϸ  Ǫ󳪿 Ÿ ִ
 ļ 󸶴ڸ   񽴴 Ÿ󰡵
öп   ϰ ֱ ̴.
  "񽴳 Ǫ"  "ϹٶŸ" ޵ǰ ִ Ʈ
Ҹ 񽴴ž Ŀ Ͽ  μ  ƮĴ
"ϹٶŸ" "Żǰ"  õ̶ 񽴴 嵵
ߴٰ .
  "񽴴 Ǫ" ö ߿ Ǹ    â
ֱ ȭ  ȭ  ũ ̴̾߱. "񽴴 Ǫ"
   񽴴 常μ ڱ ڽ ȿ  ָ
ϰ ִ. ״ Ű   ڸ սŰ иŰ
ð · ϸ  ڸ  â  ϳ μ
Ѵ. â  ü Űöп ϴ  
     ¸ ߸   
ֱ⿡   Ű  ڱԿ ؼ Ѵ. κ
  ȭ ̷ κ  ҵ Ͽ
ϳ Ŵ ˰   Ͽ   ְ ȴ.  
񽴴 â 帶 ·      ϴð
 ߱ âϸ Ű  ϰ Ѵ.  ״ 
 񽴴μ 踦 ϴٰ    ı
μ 踦 ҷν ıϰ    ָ ϳ 
. ׸ 񽴴   ִ  θ ū 
  ޽ · .
  帶  âκ ı ̸ Ⱓ ϰŶ θ
帶 Ϸ  Ұϴٰ Ѵ.  ϰŵȿ  
Ҹ ֱ ϸ    4  Ǿ մ.
 ̴ ΰԴ 4320000̸ ŵ鿡Դ 12000⿡ شѴ.
4  ũŸ  4800(ŵ), ƮŸ 
3600, Ķ  2400, ׸ Į  1200 Ǿ,
  ϴ  ΰȸ ° ҹ   ϸ
ΰ    ȴٰ Ѵ. ̷   
 1000 ݺǴ  ϰ̸ ̰ 帶  
شѴٴ ̴. Ϸ       帶
    񽴴  ִ ̴. ̷  
 񽴴  帶μ 踦 ٽ âϰ
帶  ۵Ǵ ̴. ̻  帶  
360 100Ⱓ̳ ӵǾ ݺǸ  Ⱓ  ð 
  񽴴  Ǿ 񽴴Ÿ Ȧ  Ǹ,
װ
ٽ  ϸ  ٽ Ǯ Ǵ ̴.
  "񽴴 Ǫ" ־ ļ ö  ҷ Ų  ϳ
ȭ 񽴴 ȭ ֵǴ ũ   μ
̴̾߱. Ư 기ٹٳ  Ǵ  ũ
񵿵 Ƴ   ̾߱ ΰ ȥ Ű 
Ÿ ¡μ 񽴴 öл ߴ  ġ Ǿ.
  񽴴  žӿ ±  6濡 ̸ ε
Ÿ濡   μڵ鿡 Ͽ ο  
Ǿ. ̵  ,, Ǫ   꽺ũƮ 
׵  Ÿо ÿ 뷡  񽴴Ű ٽſ 
   뷡ߴ. ׷ν ׵ ٵ ξ 
̰  ž ħ ǥϰ  ̴. ׵ 
  ΰ  μ 常 ̶⺸ٴ
׵  ΰ Ű    üϴ ̾.
̵ Ÿ μڵ    ÿ 뷡 ڿ
 ǰ Ǿ ̵  񽴴Ŀ   
߿  ϰ Ǿ.
  Ŀ 10濡 ߳ Ҹ  μڵ
 Ƽ 12 Ͽ, ̰ ̹ ˴Ÿ ߿
 ̷. ̹ ˴Ÿ 13⿡ Ͼ  ϳμ Ű
ΰ , ΰ ˿   ϸ, ٽžӿ ϳ
, ö  ߴ.  񽴴Ĵ 11⿡ ˹ٸ
Ҹ ׵ μڵ 뷡 Ͽ 4000ø ߴ.
   ŸϿ Ͽ ԵǾٰ ϸ ׿  
İڵ  õ 񽴴  뷡ϸ ׵ ž
ǥߴ. ˹ٸ ô Ư  ũ 񵿵 Ƴ
  ݰ  ΰ Ű ̻ 踦 ¡ϴ
μ ߴ. ŸϿ  İڵ  ̽ٶ
 ĸ ߴ.
   ̽Ĵ ̹ ˴ŸĿʹ ޸  
Ͽ ڱ žӰ   ޹ħϷ ϴ 
꽺ũƮ ö  Ͽ Ÿ Ѿ ε 
  ġ Ǿ. ̷  ̴Ͻ 
 ö   ǥϴ  󸶴ڿ. ״ ε
Ÿ濡 ¾  ̽ μ, 񽴴ſ 
ž 뼺 ž    ȣϱ Ͽ "帶 "
"ٰٵ Ÿ" ּ Ἥ ī ̷ ö Ŷϰ
ϰ  Ÿö   Ǿ. ķκ
ī ̷ Ÿö  ̿  µ鿡 Ͽ 
ް Ǿ.
  󸶴  ٿ  װ  ִ 
̽ ž 뿡   ö  װ ϴ
 ̽  ߹ ̹ ãƺ  ִ. ߹
Ÿ ̸ İڷμ "ٰٵ Ÿ" ؼ
"Ÿǰ"  󸶴 "Ÿ" ؼ   ־.
߹  "˵Ʈ"   Ű߿ ľö 
ξƿ 󼼰谡 ְŰ   ϰ ִ.
󸶴ڴ ٷ ̷ ߹  ̾޾ Ű ϼŲ
ö̴. ״  "帶" ּ "" ڱⰡ
پ߳  "帶" ؼ   ϰ ִ.


    2. 󸶴 ̻

  󸶴 ̻   ؼ ī ̷ öа
Ű ̿ ö  Ȥ ߰ ö   ִ. ״ 
īö ٺ  常  缺 ϸ鼭 
ȿ Űö ̷  , Ǫ ũƼ  
Ϸ Ѵ.  󸶴ڿ ϸ 常   ̴. ׷ 
 常 ī ̷ Ÿó ƹ Ӽ 
 ΰ 簡 ƴ϶, Ӽ   ΰ ̴.
 󸶴ö ̷̶ θ. ٽ ؼ 常
پ缺 Ӽ  ̴.  Ӽ Ȥ ¿  
ִ.   ȥ̴.  ȥ 常  
  ϸ,  常 ϰ 常 ׵
ü̴. ȥ   常 Ӽ̱ 
īöпó ȯ ƴ϶ ϴ  ֵȴ. 󸶴ڿ 
־ ""  ǹ ʰ  â  Ѵ. 
󸶴ڴ ī ü̳,  ̿ ٰ " 常" " 
常"  ޾Ƶ ʴ´.
  󸶴ڴ 常 ,  ȥ  踦 ȥ
ü 迡 Ͽ Ѵ, ȥ ü  ٸ ü
ȥ     ȥ ü ϴ ̴. ̿
   ȥ  ̸ ̵ ſ
ϰ ִٴ ̴. Ȥ 󸶴ڴ Ű  踦 ü
κ μ ϱ⵵ Ѵ.  ȥ  κе ٴ
̴.
  ī 󸶴ڴ  谡 常 ϰ 
, ī     常  ݸ鿡
󸶴ڿ ־   ̹ 常 ȿ Ͽ ִٰ ׷κ 
Ͽ   ̴. 󸶴ڿ ϸ 常  
° ִ.  ϳ 谡  常κ  Ǿ   
̰ų Ȥ 谡 üǾ 常 Ǿ ִ ·μ,
̰ 常  ¶ Ѵ. ٸ ϳ 谡
常κ Ǿ   ·μ, ̰ 常
 ¶ θ.
  常  ȿ κа     ̸
 ε ǰ ɵε , 常 ü ȭϰų
 ʴ´.  Ӽ µ鸸 ȭ ̴.  踦
ʿϴ ̴. ״    ǰ ϰ Ÿ
õ迡 ٸ ŵ ڵ ع ȥ Բ ϰ ִ.״
 ü   ü ׸ ӹ ʴ´. ֳϸ
ӹ̶   ݸ鿡  ٷ  ̱ ̴.
  谡 ü   ̼ϰ   · 
 ̷ κ ȥ   ׵  
 踦 Ųٰ
Ѵ.     ̼   켱 ȭ.. ̼ 
 ҵ ٲ ̵  츮 ϴ پ 󼼰踦 ̷ ̴.
ȭ... Ҵ Ʈٿ ڽ Ÿ  Z  
Ÿٰ Ѵ. Űöа ޸ 󸶴ڴ Ʈ,ڽ,Ÿ
 Ұ ƴ϶ Z .󸶴ڿ ϸ ڽ Ÿ
    ʰ  Ʈٸ   Ư  Ѵ.
̹  Ű ٴ Ű迡 ϴ μ,̳ ع
ڵ  ׵ ϴ  ִ 繰 ̷ Ư  Ǿ
ִٰ Ѵ. 
  ȥ ٵ  常 ¿   Ϻ̱ ,׵
  ϴ  Ѵ.׷ ׵   
   ̴.ȥ  ũ⸸  ڵμ, ׵ 
   ΰ   ̴. ȥ  ũ⸸
 ڵμ,׵  ־ ϴٰ Ѵ. â
¿ ȥ     ü ԰   ü¿
Ȥ ع ȥ üκ  Ѵ.ȥ ȸ 迡
  Ͽ ڽ ̵ ȥϰ  ̴.̷ ȥ
 ھǽμ Ƹ ȥ  ִ ǽİ ٸٰ
Ѵ.

  ȥ Ͱ   ü̴.ȥ  ü ־    ǽ
̴.ȥ ڰ ڽ ˱⵵ ϰ  ˱⵵ ϸ ڱ ڽ
巯, 巯 Ѵٰ Ѵ.  () Ͽ
ȥ 巯 ̴.ݸ鿡   ü  巯  
׵  Ѵ.ƴ  ȥ ϴ ̱ ̴.󸶴ڴ
̸ īʹ ޸  ȥ   쿬
 ƴ϶ Ѵ.   ³ ع ¿ 
ȥ Ѵٴ ̴. ȥ  ̱ ϳ,׷ٰ
ؼ 󸶴ڴ īó ȥ  ü  Ȥ ̶  ʴ´.
󸶴ڿ ϸ ̶    . ̶  ü
ϸ   ִ.   ѰǾ ְ Ư Ӽ
ϰ ִ ̴.츮< ǽϰִ>  ƹ < ̴>
 ϴ  ٴ ̴.׸ ȥ  ó ĵ ϸ
 ̰ ϰ ̶ Ѵ.׷ 츮  Ѱ
ظ ޾ 츮  Ѱ踦  ȴٴ ̴.
  İ  ȥ    ִٰ Ѵ.
󼼰迡 ҿ԰  ȥ  ǵ帮  ƴϴ.
ع ȥ  İ  ູ  ̴.

    3 Ż
󸶴ڿ ϸ ȥ ع   Ÿ ؼ ̷ٰ Ѵ.
׷ ؼ 󸶴ڴ īʹ ޸,    ʿ  Ѵ.
 ״   ־   ׸ Ǫ ̸
Ÿ ̸縦   Ѵ. Ǫ ̸  Ÿö 
 غμ ֵǸ     ڰ ϱ  ϸ
ȥ ȭ  ȴٰ Ѵ. ־  Ͽ   
 ϴ ī ̸  ְ ִ ̴.
  󸶴ڿ ϸ Ż̶ ñ ȥ  ٸٴ Ŀ Ͽ
 ̶ Ѵ. ׷ 󸶴ڰ ϴ ̶ ܼ Ÿöп
  ذ ƴ϶ 䰡  Ͽ  μ, ̷
 ȥ ӹڰ ȸ κ عŲٰ Ѵ.׷ ̷
κ ع ȥ ü  ϰ ϱ ϳ  Ű
Բ ϴ ູ  Ѵٰ Ѵ.̷ ְ   ſ
   õϴ ž 䰡 Ͽ  ̴.
žֶ 䰡 Ͽ  ̴.žֶ ſ  Ӿ  
ǹϸ,̷ žָ ϴ ڴ ſ     
ڱ  ܿ  ʴ μ ׿  ϰ ִٴ
 ݰ ȴٰ Ѵ.
 ž 䰡 ٿ   ʿ ϹǷ   
    . 󸶴ڴ ̷  Ͽ  
 ϰ ִ.    ϴ  ׸ Ͽ ڱ ڽ
ϰ ϸ ׿   ñ ڴ  ѿ Ͽ 
  ִٴ ̴.
  󸶴ڴ Ż   ʴ´.ȥ   ü 
 ,  Ķ߸ μ Ż  ̴.󸶴ڿ ־
 ȥ ӹڰ ȸ    Ÿ ȯ  .
 󸶴ڴ Ż   ʴ´.Ű οȥ ̴
  ,ȥ ü ӹ     ȸϰ, 
Ʈ    ູӿ Ű   Ѵٴ
̴.
  󸶴   ڵ īŸ ߽ ϴ  ٴٰĿ 
ī߸ ߽ ϴ  ٰķ иϰ Ǿ. Ĵ
 Ѱ ΰ ¿ Ͽ  ظ .ٴٰĿ ϸ
  ޱ Ͽ 츮 θ ȭϷ  ʿϴٴ ̴.
ġ  ̰ Ӵ  Ŵ޸ Ͱ  츮   ϰ
  ޱ Ͽ ſ Ŵ޸   ؾߵȴٴ ̴.
ݸ鿡 ٰĴ ׷   ޱ Ͽ ΰ  
ʿٴ ̴. ġ ̰  ڱ  ÷  
ϵ    ε鿡Ե ϸ ׵ ȸ κ Ѵٴ
̴. 󸶴 ö  İڵ鿡 Ͽ µǾ, ü
 ī  ϳ  Ÿö  ϻ 
ö ɷ ϰ پ 󰡵  ߴ.


       19 񽴴 Ÿö
    1. 󸶴  εö 
  Ÿö ϴ 󸶴ڿ Ͽ ī ̷а ޸ ž
ؼ    ,  ö Ÿ翡  
ġ Ǿ. 󸶴 ڸ ̾ Ÿ  񽴴Ŀ 
öڵ   ȥ  ϴ  , ̵
ְμ 常 踦  ڱ  Ϸ Ͽ.
󸶴ڸ Ͽ ȥ  縦 ϸ鼭  ̷ ,
 常    ϰ ִ ݸ鿡, ׵ 
ȥ  常    ϰ Ǿ.
  μ 󸶴ڴ İ žֿ͸ ν ؼϴ
ݸ鿡, ̵ ž Ÿ öڵ žָ  Ӱ  
Ͽ ߼ ε    ݿϰ ִ ̴. 
󸶴ڸ ȯ Ͽ ̵ ž  󰡵鿡 Ͽ 
 μ öе εö ϳ ū 帧 ϰ
Ǿ. ī ̷ ö  Ư    
ʿ ̾, 󸶴  Ÿöڵ  Ư 
忡  Ÿ   ڱ  ؼϰ ִ ̴.
ݸ鿡 ̿   ؼ ī ö  Ư Ÿ 
ʰ  ǹμ     ٶ󹮵鿡 Ͽ 
޾ƿ  ̴.
  
    2.  ̿ Ÿö
  (Madhva, 1199-1278) ε Ƕ  ¾
 ٸ ϰ ڰ Ǿ. ״  īö
ڿ  ̸ īö ź Ÿ 
Ͽ ī ö  ̿ Ÿö ϰ Ǿٰ
Ѵ. ״ 񽴴Ű  ȭ ũ    ڷμ
  ٴϸ鼭    ڱ  ǿ
ũ     Ȱ  Ҵ.
  ٴ   . ״ '帶', 'Ĵϻ', 'ٰٵ
Ÿ', 'ϹٶŸ', 'ٰŸ Ǫ'  ؿ , ڱ
Ÿö ȣϴ 'ؼ' ּ '' . ھƼŸ
  ƼŸ 󰡺 Ƽ   İڵ鿡 Ͽ
 ּǾ. ٿ  ڵ Ư ī ̿
Ÿö Ŷϰ Ͽ   .
  ٴ ν μ  ߷а  Ѵ.  ùٸ
ν Ͽ  Ͽ ϸ,   ɼ ִ
ΰ Ͱ  ȮǼ  ΰ    ִٰ Ѵ.
ٴ  μ  ΰ ڸ   ʴ ̴. ν
ݵ ü üμ Ǹ   ̴. νĿ ľǵǴ
    ִٰ Ѵ.    üμ
ھư   ̴. ٿ ϸ 츮  ٸ ֿ
   ǽ  ü Ͽ  Ÿ缺 Ȥ ڸ
οް ִٰ Ѵ. ̰    Ÿ缺  ̴.
Ӹ ƴ϶  츮 νĿ  ־ ׸ ν ߻Ѵ Ͽ
 νĵ    ٰ  ϴٰ Ѵ. ׸ ν̶
 ִ ״ο ٸ νϴ ̴. ̷   󼼰 
   ̶ ϴ   ٸ   Ÿ
   ƹ   ʴ  ƴϴ. 츮  
׸ ̶   Ʋ  ̴   , 繰
  ٸ 츮  ִ     ٴ
̴.
  ٿ ϸ 翡   ִ. ϳ  , ٸ ϳ
Ÿ ̴. Ÿ  ̸ Ÿ    еȴ.
 ǽ ȥ ǽ ̳ ð   ִ.
ǽ 翡 ó  ͵ ְ ð, , ó
ϱ⵵ ϰ  ʱ⵵  絵 ,   
   ִ.
  ٴ ī ̷ ö ұ    
̷ Ŷ ϸ,  踦  ϴ 
. ״ 󸶴ڿ  Ű ȥ     ϰ
 ڰ    ߴ.  ȥ , ȥ ȥ,
ȥ , Ű , ׸   繰  ̴.
      ϰ , Ʈ() ĩƮ()
Ƴ()   ´. ״  âڿ ڿ, ı̴.
״ ڽ  ¿ ȭ Ÿ  Ż鿡 ϰ ִ.
  ʿ̱⵵ ϸ  ȥ  ڷμ ϴ
̴.  ȥ    ϰ ִ. ٴ 
 Ȱ   ȥ  ѵ   ϰ ֱ
ϳ ׵    ޷ȴٴ     Ѵ.
 ö δ ٿ     ӵǰ
踦 ޴´ٴ   ̿ ϰ ִ ̴. ٴ
󸶴ڿ  Ű (  ȥ) 踦 ȥ  
ų, 踦  Ӽ̳ ·  ʴ´. ȥ  
ſ , Ű  üμ Ѵ.   
ɵ̱ ϳ  ƴϴ. ⼭ ٴ  'Ĵϻ'
'ٰٵ Ÿ' ŷ κ  ִ ̴. ̿
  ö  ̿ Ÿ θ, ī ̷̳
󸶴 ̷а Ѵ.
  ȥ ϰ  , ũ⿡ ־ ̶ Ѵ. ٿ
ϸ ̳ó      ִ ü̴.
ȥ    ؼ װ  ִ ü  ִ. ̷
鿡  繰  ִ Ű ٸ ̴. ȥ  İ 
 ִ. ׷        
ҿ ϴ ̴.   ȥ  , ׵
  İ  ü̴. ٴ ȥ νı ̶
θ. ̰ Ͽ ȥ θ ǽϸ ̰ ȥ  
Ǵ ̴. ٿ ϸ ȥ ε ϴٰ Ѵ. 
ȥ  ü Ư ٴ ̴.  ع ¿
׵ İ 񿭿  ̰ Ѵٰ Ѵ.
  ȥ  ο ȥ ع ȥ ӹڵ ȥ  
ִ. 񽴴 â  ΰȭ̸  Ƴ ֵǴ ̴
ٸ ŵ ޸   ο  Ѵ. ӹڵ ȥ
   ִ ȥ ׷  ȥ  , ڴ
 ȸ 迡 Ȳϴ ̴. ٿ ϸ ƹ 
ȥ̶       κθ 
̸, Ű ȥ ̴  Ѵٰ Ѵ. ȥ  常
   .
   ſ Ͽ ¸  󼼰 Ǹ  üÿ
繰 ٽ   ǵư.   ̼  
  ̳    Ǿ ִٰ Ѵ. ٴ
   · ϸ,  ȥ  ɷ ϴ 
  ִٰ Ѵ.
  ٿ ϸ  ǹ   õ ȥ 
 ,  ٵ  ƴ Ŀ Ͽ ϴٰ Ѵ.
̷  ؼ  ΰ ʿϴ. ׷ ڿ 
  Ǫ󳪳 µ ؼ ׷    ִ.  ƴ
̶ 츮 ׿  ϰ ִٴ  ׿  
´. ̰  ž̸ žִ ſ    Ÿ. 츮
̷    Ͽ ׿   ´ٰ Ѵ. 
 ٷ  ־ 츮  ӹκ Ӱ Ѵ.
ع ȥ Ŀ 񽴴   Ʈ  ԰
   ӿ  ູ ٰ Ѵ.
  
    3. Թٸī ̷̺
  Թٸī ڷ籸 ϴ ε  ٶ̾. ״ ũ
 ڷμ ũ  Ѵٹٳ  ε  濡
ϻ ´.   Ȯġ  12  13 ι
ȴ.
  Թٸī  '帶' ּ 'Ÿ ĸŸ '
  ڱ ö  ϰ ϴ 'ʼ' . 
ö Ϲٻ(14), ɻī̸(16)   µǾ.
ɻī̸ 'Ÿ' ּ 'ظ' Թٸī  ȣߴ.
  Թٸī 󸶴 öп   ԰  ϸƮ,
Ͻī, ߴٹٿ  Ÿöڵ鿡  ǥǾ 
 ̾ް ִ.    ɵ̸ μ Ű 
 ⵵ ϰ ٸ⵵ ϴٴ ̴. ״ 󸶴ڿʹ ޸ 
ȥ  Ӽ̰ų Ȥ   ̷ٴ   ʴ´.
Ӽ̶  縦 ٸ κ  ִµ,  ܿ ׷κ
Ǿ ٸ  ͵  ʴ  Ӽ̶ ǹϴٰ Ѵ.
   ȥ   ̷ٰ ϸ,   ° 
ҿԿ ӵ ̱  踦     ٰ Ѵ.
ԹٸīԴ ȥ  ſ ϰ ,   ׵ Ű
 ǹѴ. ׷ ÿ  ȥ    Ƿ,
  Ῡ ׵ Ű  ǹѴٰ Ѵ.  Թٸī
̷̺ Ѵ. ġ ¾ ¾, Ұ Ҳ,  ĵ ó
Ű  ⵵ ϰ ٸ⵵ ϴٴ ̴.
     ȿ ̹ ̼ϰ ϰ ִ   ̳
ȯ ƴϴ.  ڱ ȿ İ ǽ,  ȥ ̶  ϰ
   â  Ǿ  ̴.   
̴. ״  â  ȥ  ׵   ˸´ 
޵ ϴ  ɵ̱⵵ ϴ. Թٸī ־  
ũ ϸ ũ  ȭ ƴ϶  ̶ Ѵ.
Թٸī  ũ  ٸ  â  Ÿ 
Ҵ.
  ǽĹ   ִ.  ð  κ  ʴ
 Ʈ̸,  ڷμ  ü ó Ǿ ִٰ Ѵ.
  ȥ    Ͽ . ȥ ع ؼ İ
  ڱ ž, ׸   ʿϴ.
  
    4. ߶ ̷
  ߶(1479⿡ 1531) ڷ籸  ٶ Ƶμ 
¾. ״ Թٸī   αٿ Ȱ ũ
ĸ âߴ. '帶' ּ 'ƴϽþ' 'ٰŸ Ǫ'
ּ 'ٰŸƼī ' , 'ȭؿ'̶ ,  ܿ
   ߴ.  ö  Ƶ ŻŸ ׹ۿ
⸮ٶ ٹ, ߶ũ Ÿ, ǪŸ  Ͽ Ǿ.
   ö  常 踦   ȯ  Ҽ 
ϴ  ƴ϶ Ͽ ̷̶ θ.  ְ Ż ´
žָ    濡 Ͽ ϴٰ ϱ   
θ.
  ߶ٿԴ 常  ũμ,    İ
̴.  ҿ Ҳ , Ȥ ҷκ  ϵ κ
´ٰ Ѵ. ȥ    μ ü κ ó
Ű ׵ ϴٰ Ѵ. 常   Ͽ  ȥ
Ű ׵    ǰ  ٸ  Ÿٰ Ѵ.
 常 κʹ  谡 ,  κʹ ڿ
 ȥ, ׸  񿭷κʹ ȥ ϴ  ڰ ´ٰ
Ѵ.  迡 常 İ   ְ, ȥ 
񿭸  ִ ̴.
    ɵ̰ ̸  ӿ  Ͽ ִ
̴. Ȥ    ְ  ڶ Ѵ.  
ü̸ ̴. ü  Ӽ Ÿ   
Ÿ ڴ ϴٰ Ѵ.   ͵ ߶ٿԴ
·öпó 踦 ǹϴ  ƴ϶ ϼ Ѵٰ Ѵ.
  ߶ٿ ϸ ȯ̳   ڱ ڽ پ  Ÿ
̸, ̷ Ÿ   ̳ ȯ ƴ϶  ̶ Ѵ.
߶ٴ 踦 常 ε ε  ʴ´.  
ڿ ߻μ ̰ ߶ٴ Һ̶ Ѵ.
  ߶ٴ ƯϰԵ  縦 Ѵ.    ̹Ƿ
 ϳ,  츮 ȥ  ,  װ  常
ü(񿭸 ߾)  𸣰 ȥ ü Ͻϴ  
  ϴ ̶ Ѵ.     糪
뵵  ̴. ( ȥ) 常 μ ϴ
 츮 װ   ߸   , ٽ  常
ٸ پ缺   ,  ʴ 㱸 ̴. 󸶴ڿ 
 缺 ϸ鼭, ī   踦  깰 
̴.
   Ͽ  ȥ  Ѿ̴    ٰ Ѵ.
ĸδ      ̸ ְ  ĺٵ žֿ
Ͽ ϴٰ Ѵ. žִ  ˸  ִ  ѿ Ͽ ׿
  ñ ڿ ־ٰ Ѵ. ߶ٴ   Ͽ
ü  ̳ κ Ǹ ʿ   ʴ´.
 ѿ Ͽ ְ   ڴ Ż̶⺸ٴ ũŰ
Բ ϴ  기ٹٳ ׸     Ѵٰ
Ѵ.
  
    5. ŸϾ  Ÿö
  ߶ٿ ô뿡 ε 濡 ŸϾ(1485⿡ 1533)
ڰ Ÿ  ũ žӿ ߴ.  ڵ ׸
ũ ȭ ߾Ѵ. ŸϾߴ    ʾ 
 Ŀ 糪Ÿ, ׸  ī ٿ Ͽ µǰ Ǿ.
ٴ Ư ŸϾ    ֵǴ '' ߴ.
18 ʿ ͼ ߶󵥹 ٴĻ糪 öڰ ͼ  ĸ 
'ټ' Ἥ ö ̸ ߴ.
   Ŀ 常    ũ̴.  
 Ͽ ۿϸ ڱ ڽ  ȥ Ÿ.   
켱  ,   Ȥ  ķ ִ.      ,
 , , 񿭿    μ ۿѴ. ڽŰ װ ϴ
  ϰ ϴ , ڽŰ Ÿ Ͽ ν  ϴ ,
׸ ڽŰ Ÿ Ͽ   ϴ ̴.
    ,  ߰ μ ȥ  ִ. ״ 
 Ͽ ڽ  ȥ Ÿٰ Ѵ. ̷ Ÿ ȥ
ڽ   ϰ ܰ迡 ڽ Ҿ δ 
߱ϱ⵵ Ѵ.
       Ȥ ȯ¿ Ͽ ڽ  
Ÿٰ Ѵ.   ־  ɵ̸ ÿ ̴. Ӹ
ƴ϶   Ͽ  ڽ ð, , ׸    Ű
  Ÿٰ Ѵ.  ̷ ɷ    
̴.
  ̻   οȥ   μ  ϴ ̳
ÿ       ̴.  Ű ׵
 ⵵ ϰ ٸ⵵  ź 踦 ̷ٴ ̴. ̿ 
íŸϾ  ö  Ұ ̶ θ.
   ȥ Ű  ¾ ¾ Ȥ Ҳɰ Ұ μ
صǸ οȥ ſ  ϰ ִ. Ż̶  
ݰ  ϰ ϴ žֿ Ͽ ־. žִ ΰ Ű ϵǾ
 游ϰ Ǵ ȲȦ   ġ ̲. ŸϾĿ
־ ̷  ġ 'ٰŸ Ǫ' ׷ ִ 
ũ  񵿵 Ƴ, Ư    ־ ̻
Ÿ ִ. ٴ ÿ ũ â Ÿ μ صǸ
ũ ⵵ ϰ ٸ⵵  Ұ  踦 ̷ ִ
̴.



    20  ö

    1.  ö  
  츮 忡 󸶴 Ŀ  񽴴  Ÿö
캸 ̹   浵   ִ.   󰡵
Ĵϻ峪 [帶] ؼ  Ÿ ö Ű 
׵鵵 ڿ Ÿ  ޾ ڱ ž  ö ϰ
Ǿ.
  츮 ̹ 6濡 ε Ÿ濡 μڵ ߽ Ͽ 
 žӿ Ͽ    ٽ ϴ ڵ 
 ۿ  ĸ ̷  ̺ٵ   ̴. 츮 [ϹٶŸ]
Ǫ  ̹ ĽŸ Ҹ  İ  ˼ ִ.
'ĽŸ'   ״δ ' ָ  ڵ'̶ ,
' ' ٽ  ̸ ϳ.  Ĵ ΰ ࿡, ׸
   ϸ, ΰ   ٿ Ͽ 迡  ִ
 Ѵ. λ  ſ Ͽ  κ عǾ ؼ
 ̶ Ѵ.
  [ Ǫ] [Ÿٽ Ĵϻ] Ŀ Ͽ 
ı Ĵϻ忡    ĽŸ  縦 Ѹ  
ϸ ĽŸ 䰡  ߴٰ Ѵ.  ĽŸ  ٽ
ȭ ֵǴ  Ҹ 3  ι ħ  
ĵ ־. ̵ 𸮻 ĽŸ Ҹ.
  ĽŸĿ   ĵ ڱ     ϴ
28 ư  ,  ư 񽴴 Ÿ
 â ɷ   ϴ Ÿ ź Ҿ ߼ε
 öе   ϴ  Ǿ. ư  ĺ,
, , ۺ η Ǿ  ݵ   ƴϴ.
Ư  ٽ ǰ ִ  Ű ΰ  ȥ  谡
پϰ صǰ ִ ̴.  ĵ 񽴴 Ÿöп
 ᱹ   ؼ  ̰ ̰ ִ ̴.  
öü   Ѵ. 
  14 Ÿö ٹ [öа]  öü踦  16
ٷ ִ ,  öüμ 4 ٷ ִ.
 𸮻 ĽŸü, ̹ü, Ƽ  Ȥ ν ü, ׸
󼼽ٶ Ȥ  ü̴. ߿ 𸮻 ĽŸĴ ̹ Ѵ
ĽŸ Ϻķμ  䰡 õ ַ ϴ Ŀ öδ
׸ Ȱߴ   ʴ.   м õϴ μ 10⸻
ϻ縣 [ īī]   ִ.
ϻ縣  ö 鵵 Ƿ  Ŀ ö ̿ 
 谡 ־  ȴ. 6-7 ö ʹī
 ĽŸ ڷ   ¸ö ŸĴٵ
ٽ ڿ. Ƹ  ڵ ڱ žӿ ö ٰŸ
Կ ־ ·а ö ̷ äϿ    ִ.
  Ĵ  ݼ ķμ ְŰ  ߱Կ ־ 
 ݼ μ   ü    ؼ
 ȴٰ Ͼ.    ö  ־ Ȱ ̷
   ʴ. 
  ٹٰ ϰ ִ   ,  ̹ü νü ݸ鿡
 ü ̷  ķμ    ʿ䰡 ִ.
  2. ̹ ˴Ÿ ö 
  ̹ü ַ ư ö Īϴ μ ε Ÿо
ϴ  ̹ ˴ŸĿ Ͽ  ü踦 ̷ߴ.  
  츮 ̹  ٰ ִ. ̹ ˴Ÿ.  
' ϼ ü' ̸  Ŀٰ ó  ü踦
  13 ĭٶ   öڿ. Ÿо
  [ ] 12ε  ǰμ [ ư]
Ϻκп ٰϰ ִ.   Ʒ곭, 츶Ƽ(14) Ͽ
ƴ. ڴ [ ˵], ڴ [ī]  .
  ̹ ˴Ÿ 3  üμ ׵   Ѵ.
 ΰ  ұ(Ļ) ¡Ǵ Ű οȥ οȥ ӹϴ
Ź̴.   Ӽ ϰ ִٰ Ѵ.  , û, ,
 ,  ӹڵκ ,  , Ǵ, ׸  ̴.
״ ϰ Һϸ 踦 âϰ, ȣϰ ıϴ, ׸ ȥ
ȥϰ ϸ, عŰ⵵ ϴ 5 Ȱ Ѵٰ Ѵ. ״ 
ɵμ    Ͽ  ټ Ȱ Ѵ.  
  μ, ǽ ְ Һϸ  ̴.  
  Ǵ ߶ θ    ִ. ׷ ߴ
  ޸   ϴ  ƴ϶ Ѵ. 
   ȥ ̶ θ. ֳϸ ׵    
Ͽ  迡  ֱ ̴. ȥ â   ̴.
ȥ μ  ̳ Ű   ׵ ٸ ̴.
ȥ      ̴. ȥ   ʰ
 ʴ´ٰ Ѵ. 
  ȥ ӹϴ ұ  Ź Ȥ ()  ִٰ
Ѵ.    ̴.     鿡  ̴.
 μ  ȥ İ  ־ ϰ ü 
ѵǾ ִ  ߸ ϰ .   Ƴٸ  ̼
̶ θ. ȥ   Ȥ ڼ  DZ ̴.
̷  ٸƴ ӹڵ ȥ ӹڼ ̷ٰ Ѵ. ȥ ӹϴ
ι°   ȥ  Ͽ ȴ.  ̼ϹǷ  ʰ
ȥ ü սŰ  ȴ. ׷  ü ڵ 
ʷϴ  ƴ϶     ̷ٰ Ѵ. °,
߶   μ װκ 谡 Ǿ ´.
̻      Ϳ Ͽ °  ȥ
 η ٰ Ѵ.  ȥ ̼  Ͽ,  
̼    Ͽ,   ȥ   ο Ͽ
ӹڵǾ ִٰ Ѵ. ̹ ˴Ÿ ϸ  ӹ  ü Űö
ũƼó  ̶ Ѵ. ׷ ȥ  ̱⿡ ȥ
׵κ ع  ִ ̴. 
  ȥ ع  Ͽ    ؾ ϸ, ׷ Ͽ
   ʿϴٰ Ѵ.   ȥ ׸ ˱⸦ ϱ 빮,
   鿡 ־   , 츮  װ ϱ⸸
ϸ ȴٴ ̴. ع ȥ ٽŰ ϳ Ǿ   
Բ Ѵ. ȥ ü  ,   װ ǽ Ѵٰ
ġ ұ     ϴ ó, ȥ鵵 Ű  Ѵٰ
Ѵ.    âȰ    ټ  ٽŸ
, ȥ  ġ   ̴. ȥ  ǰ̶ ڽ  
Ͻϴ ̱ , ӹڵ ȥ ڽ  Ͻϸ, ع ȥ
ڽ Ű Ͻϴ ̶ Ѵ.

  ̹ ˴Ÿ ö ַ Ÿ μڵ ž  ư 
ٰϿ  ö̴. ׷  󰡵  ̷ 
   뿡 Ű ϴ  Ÿ Ǿ.
 ǥ öڷμ ĭŸ   ִ.   Ȯ ˷
ʾ 14 ι ȴ. ״ ٽž 忡  [帶]
ּ [̹ټ]   ּ 16 ľ Ÿ Ͽ 
Ǵٽ ּǾ. ̵ Ÿ ؼ ü ̹ ˴Ÿ  ϰ
 󸶴 ̷а ſ ϴ.
  3. ν ö
  ̹ ˴Ÿİ ε ٰŸ  ӿ Ͽ νĴ 
ī̸濡   ö̾. 14 ʿ ī̸
̽ ǰ ʿ  νĵ    ϰ Ǿ.
ν ̸ οȥ ڽ ٽ ٽ νν 
 ȴٴ   ̸̴. 
  ν âڴ 9 ι Ǵ ٽŸμ, 뿡 ϸ
״ ٽſ Ͽ ޿ ø ޾ ߻ ϵٺ ִ   
 [ٰ] ߰Ͽ    ٺ Ҵٰ Ѵ. ״ 
[Ǵ īī]  .  Ĵ ٸ ̸δ [Ǵٷ]̶ 
Ҹ.   Ͽ پ 󼼰谡 Ÿٴ ̷п ٰ ̸
̴. Ȥ ٽŰ   ȥ  Ѵ Ͽ ü̶ Ҹ.
ٽŸ  Ҹ []Ʈȶ(10) [νİ],
ƺ񳪹ٱŸ(11) [ֻ], ũ(11) [ٰ漺] Ͽ
νķ ö ϼǰ Ǿ. 
  ̹ ˴Ÿʹ ޸ νĴ  Ͽ ö ߴ. ׷
̷ Ÿʹ ޸  Ĵ پ缺 踦  츮 ְ  һ
 ʰ   ȭ  . ݺǴ  ֱ ȭ
 ǽ ̶ ̴.  ΰ  ,  , ,
  ¸  ϰ  ̰ ٸ ƴ  , ,
Ҹ, ޽ Ÿٴ ̴.    ɵ̸  ̴.
 â Ȱ ȭ̳    ʰ  Ӹӿ ׸
׸ ȭ â Ȱ ϴٰ Ѵ. 
       Ͽ ȰѴ. ķ, 񿭷, , ,
°  ̴. ״  ߶ μ   ڽ ϰ
   ŸԲ Ѵ. ̻  鿡 Ͽ οȥ
پ 󼼰, ְ  谡 Ÿ  Ÿ  ̸
پ缺  μ    ϴ  ƴϴ. ġ 繰 ſ£
Ÿ ó  踦 ڽ ȿ Ÿ Ѵٴ ̴.
  νö پ   ϱ Ͽ Űö 25
11 ߰Ͽ  36 Ѵ.  ٿ ְ ٸ Ͽ
Ͽ 36°  ()  ϴ ̴.
  ؼ οȥ Ͽ ڽ ̰ ü  νĽŰ
Ű ϼ ϴ  ؾ߸ ϴ.  Ÿ ؼ
ñ  ν  Ư  ڿ ϰϿ ׸ ƾ߸
Ѵٰ Ѵ. ̷  Ͽ ȥ Ű  ϳ νϸ
 Ѽ   ̴. ν ȹ  ÿ ̹
Ű  Ż  Ŀ μ  ʿϰ ȴٰ Ѵ.


      4  ε 

    21 ε   

    1. ̽ α
  Ÿ   ǿ ε ȭ Ÿ ġ
 Ŀ   Ͽ. δ ε ȭ ߱
Ƽ, ׸ ƽþ   Ǿ, δ ε ȸ
   ϰ ڸ Ǿ. ׷ ġδ Ÿ
 Ͽ ε  Ͽ   ձ иϰ Ǿ,
  Ӿ 븳 ġ ȥ ñ  Ǿ. 
  ̷ ¿ ٽ   ε ġ ϰ     ε
ֹε ƴ϶ ȸ̾. ± 632⿡ ϸ    ۵
̽ ġ,  â ð ߵ Ͽ Ӹ ƴ϶,
   âϿ ߱濡 ̸ Ǿ. 10 ʹ
Ű ȸ īϽźκ ε Ͽ  ,
13ʹ ε κ ȸ 踦 ޱ Ͽ, 14⿡
ĭ濡 ȸձ . 16⿡ ũٸ(1556~1605)  Ͽ
   ε κ ȸ ձ Ͽ ,
 ġ  ƿ  ̸ ġ ߴ. ׷ ƿ 
   ް ϱ ,   Ҿ  
 ε ϱ ϰ Ǿ. 18 ߿  ̹ ε 
   , 19 ʿ ε ġϰ  ̴. 
ᱹ ε 13 1947⿡ ġ  ã   700Ⱓ ܼ
踦 ޾Ҵ ̴. 
  ̽  ݻ  Ÿ Ƿ α ȭ  ʾ,
 α ̽ ϱ Ͽ α  ü ̽ 
ġ 迡 ұϰ  ū ȭ  ʰ ӵǾ. 켱 
Ƽ ȸڴ  α ȸ  ̷ ִ ijƮ
 鸲  Ǿ ̴.  ̽  
   ؼߴ ̴. Ӹ ƴ϶  μڵ鿡 Ͽ ֵ
žӿ ߼ε  ۾鼭 α  Ұ 
ο   ־. 
  ׷ ٸ δ  λ簡 ̽ ϰ  Ͻ ž
 ޾ ٽű α  Ҿ ̽ ȭ ϴ 
 ϰ Ǿ. ̷  ǥϴ ڷμ ī(1380~1460)
(1469~1538)   ִ. 
  ī񸣴  μ α  ž  ̾ ޾Ҵ. ״
񽴴 ȭ 󸶸   ڵ  â 󸶳
ڿ. ׷ ī񸣴 α ̷ öа ̽ Ͻ 
 Ͽ θ 󸶽Ű ˶ ڽ̶ ҷ.
״ ̳̽ α ܰ ŸǸ ϰ    л̸
  ̸  ̸   ߴ. ׿Դ Ż質 
̳ ̽ ũ    ҿ ѽŰ ׸ μ
 ̳ ǹ  ׸ ϴ ڿԴ Գ θ ˸ٰ
Ѵ. ī񸣴 ̽ α ǽǸ ôϰ  ڸ 
ߴ. 
  ī   Ͽ  Ǿ.  α ̽κ
Ằϰ αڿ ȸڸ Ͽ ϳ  ⵵ ϴ
ũ(<۵>̶ ) Ҹ ο   âߴ. ũ
 ַ α  鼭 ̽  Ͻž ϸ
Ż踦 ôߴ.   ũ ۵ Ͽ
׶Ʈ(<å>̶ )   ׵  ߽ Ҵ.
      ̽   Ÿ ұϰ
α ȭ ϴ ο  ϰ Ǿ. Ư ָ  
 4  峲 ٶ (1615~1659). ״ ũٸ ̷
  յ  뼺 ̾޾ ̽ α տ
  . ״ ̽ ź   Ʒ α
ź, Ư Ĵϻ 翡 Ͽ  ϼ ϱ ̸.
״ Ĵϻ带  ϽŻ ġ   и ÷ Ͽ,
 Ĵϻ  52 Ͽ κ 丣þƾ  
Ĵϻ带  ߴ. ׷ ٶ  ̿   µ 
̽ ڵ ݹ 缭 ᱹ ״ 豳ڷ óǾ.   ڸ 
  ƿ(1658~1707)   ȸμ ״ ũٸ ̷
ս ٺ  ⿡ θ .

    2.  ġ α 
  ̽ ʹ   ε λȸ ȭ Ŀٶ 
ְ Ǿ. 켱 ġδ  ġ  ̽ 踦 ޾ƿԴ
α鿡   ع氨 Դ. Ӹ ƴ϶ ε 
̽ ʹ ޸ ü ̾ , ̽ 캸ٴ
 ޾Ƶ̱  ̾.   ε鿡 Ͽ Ե 
 ٴ   ټ α鿡   ,
   Ҽ ε ε鿡 Ͽ  ޾Ƶ鿩 ̴.
  ó  ̽ ڵ    ݹ  ̴.
׸Ͽ  ε  ̽ 躸 ðδ ξ  ª,
εȸ ȭ Ͽ   ٺ ȭ ʷϰ Ǿ.
ε鿡 Ͽ    ׵  ٴ ո  
ٶ󹮵 ֵϿ ̷  ȸ  Ǵ  ,
εε鿡 ο ȸ  ġ ߴ ̴. ٶ ȸ
Ư̶簡 뿹ް õε鿡  , ھ̵ ȥ,ε
ȥ, Ƽ(  Ҿ  ȭϴ ) ո ε鿡
Ͽ   ƴ϶, ο   Ҽ  ε ڽſ
Ͽ ڰǰ Ǿ, ̵ ȸ  Ϸ 
ϰ  ̴.   ġ,   Ҿ  ⵶
 ׵  ̴ ϱ  α   
  Ҵ. α ٽű žӰ Ż    ׽
׵   Ǿ, ̷  ο   Ϻ ε
ε鿡 ؼ ޾Ƶ鿩 ̴.  α  Ͼ  
ǥ    ϰ 캻.
  1.  縶
    1828⿡  (1774~1833) Ͽ ۵Ǿ.  ̴
     ڷ ֵǸ, ״ α ȸ 
Ӹ ƴ϶   Ȯ Ͽ . ׿  ڵ鿡 ϸ
ٽű ž̳ Ż    α  α 
ħκ Ÿ ̴.  ؼ ϸ Ĵϻ Ͻ
 ġ, ״ ̰Ϳ Ͽ  α   ߴ.
״ 1815⿡ 1819 ̿   Ĵϻ带 ߴ.
 ̿ Ͽ ۵ < 縶>   Ʈ Ÿ 
Ͽ  Ǿ.  뺧л  Ʈ Ÿ(1861~1941)
 Ʈ Ÿ Ƶ̾.
  2. Ƹ 縶
  'Ƹ 縶'  α , ȸ  , δ
 縶갡 ʹ  ġ ȭ Ѵٰ ϸ鼭  
ȸ    ã    ߴ.
  پ߳(1824~1883) Ͽ âõǾ. ׿ ϸ ٴ 
 ϽŻ ġ, Ż ijƮ  ġ
ʴ´. α      ؾ,  й̳
ġ ô Ƽ ȵȴٰ Ѵ.   α 뿡 
ο ̵带 ɾ ־, ' 縶'   
Ͽ. ׷        ̻ Ѿ
λȸ ü    Ͽ.
  3. ũ ȸ
  ũ(1836~1886) 濡 ߴ. ״  16
 íŸϾ߿    񽴴-ũ ž  ̾ ڿ.
״   ü Ͽ   ñ ϳ ޾,
 ī ̷ Ÿö Ͽ ̿  ̷ ޹ħ .
״ ⵶ ̽ Ͽ,  ϸ  ȯ
Ҵٰ Ѵ.   ɼ î  ī(1863~1902) 
 ڵ鿡 Ͽ θ ĵǰ Ǿ. Ư īٴ 1893⿡
ī  ' ȸ' Ÿöп ԰ α  
Ұ, 1896⿡ ' Ÿȸ' â߰, ε ƿͼ
'ũ ȸ' âߴ. 'ũ ȸ' ε  
θ Ѽ, Ÿ ö ߽  α  翡 Ұϴµ
ū  ߴ.
  4. Ÿ
  Ʈ Ÿ(1861~1941) Ƹ  Ҿ  ε  
ι ֵǴ ̴. 1912⿡ ǵ   [ź߸]μ 뺧л
ϸ鼭 ״ ε ǥϴ μ   ġ Ǿ.
״    ϸ鼭 ټ    
ϸ鼭 η  ڻ ϱ. ״ Ư ε ƽþ ڽŰ
踦    ϸ鼭   ö   
ߴ.   ־ ״ ε ġ  ϸ鼭 ش ġϺ
 ݴ ε Ǹ ߴ. ׷⿡ ״  
 ɿ ұϰ  ü ġ    ſ
԰  ߴ ̴.
  Ÿ Ÿö Ͽ  ̾ް  踦  ȯ
 ʴ´.  ӿ ڽ Ÿ ڿ ź Ƹٿ
Ͽ 츮   ν   Ѵ.
  5. 
  (1869~1948) ε  ġμ    ȣ
̾. ״     ̳ 罺
ȭǿӸ ƴ϶ α 뿡 ã ,   ׷ Ͽ
ε ߿  ° ȣҷ ϰ Ͽ ̴. ״ Ʈ
( ȥ)̶ Īȣ   ϳ ڷα ߾ӹް Ǿ.
״  εε鿡 ġ ̻ ߴ.  ġ  
ġ  Ѿ   ڱð ϼ ǹߴ. 
̷  ڱ ħν [ٰٵ Ÿ] ൿ ö
'ī 䰡'  Ȱӿ ϰ ߴ. ε ġ   
' '  õ   ҷ ״.
   Ÿ ǿ Ͽ ڱⰡ  ܱǰ źε ü
ġ  鸸 ָ ߵ ΰٿ   ̶
ȣϸ鼭  , ġ  Ұи ߴ. ״ ε
Ǵ Ÿ̰ ħ  ƴ϶ ε ̸ ε 踦
Ͽ ױ  ڽ    ˾ƾ Ѵٰ ߴ.

    22  εö

    1. κ ö
  Ÿ  ׵   ¿ ұϰ öڶ⺸ٴ
ΰ ġ, ׸  ǹ̷μ 󰡶 ҷ  ̴. 츮
ε ö    װ  ؼϴ ε ö
ǥ μ κ󵵿 ũ    .
  κ(1872~1950)       ͱϿ
ε  Ͽ . ׵  [ٰٵ Ÿ] 'ī 䰡'
Ͽ, ߿  ġȰ  䰡 ڷμ, öڷμ
λ ƴ.   ü Ÿö ο ؼ   ִ. ״
εö ַ ϴ ī ̷ Ÿö Ĵϻ ö
߸ ؼ ̶ ߴ. ׿ ϸ 常   
̸鼭 󼼰 پ缺  ʴ´. 常 ̸鼭 ̰,
̸鼭  ̴. κ󵵿    ұ  ϰ ٸ
, ī ö ٸ ϰ ϸ    ִٰ Ѵ.
, ǽ, 񿭷μ 常     μ
θ   Ÿ.       Ȥ Ƽμ
ϴ ̴. κ󵵴 常 ڱ ڽ Ͽ پ 󼼰
Ÿ  ' ε' θ.  ε Ʈ, ĩƮ, Ƴٷμ
常 پ 󼼰͸ Ű ִ, 常 ڱǽμ
 ̴. 常  ε带 Ͽ ڱ θ 󼼰 Ÿ
 κ󵵴 ϰ Ȥ ̶ θ.  ϰ   常
ϴ ϰ ⵵ ϳ ÿ ȿ 常 Ͽ 
Ӿ  ȭ ߱ϰ ȴ.  ȭ  κ󵵴 ̶
θ. ׸Ͽ   ȭϰ,   ȭѴ. ΰ
 ϰ    ġ ϰ ִ ̴. ֳϸ
ΰ  , , ŻӸ ƴ϶,  ȥ, Ȥ ھ̱ ̴.
ΰ ̷ ȭ ӿ  ϰ ڽſ   ڰ Ͽ
, , μ  ھƸ ʿϿ,  ε   Ŀ
Ͽ ϴ ̴.
  ̷ ΰ  ε忡 ϸ, ֳ ó  ִ 
 Ʈ, ĩƮ, Ƴٴ  巯 Ǵ ̴. ׸ ̰  ΰ
ڱ ̿,   ȭ ڱ ̴. ΰ ְ 
 ¸ κ󵵴  ̶ θ, ̷ ȭ ΰ 
 Ȥ ̶ θ. ״ ̷   ñظǥ ϱ Ͽ
ڽ   ϴ  䰡  ϰ ִ. κ󵵿
ϸ ʿ       ٽ ϰϿ  ε
   迡  ϸ   ʿȭ ȭ ´ٰ Ѵ.
  κ ö Ÿ ö  ̾鼭  
ȭ  ޾, ī   常  
常  忡   ΰ    ؼ
õ ö̶   ִ.
  2. ũ ö
  ũ(1888~)  ִ ε  ǥϴ 󰡴.
״ īٰ  α   翡 Ұߴ Ͱ
 Ÿöп ԰Ͽ   ǹ̸ ؼϿ   
ҷ״. ״ ε öа  ϰ Ұϴ  ū 
 Ӹ ƴ϶,  dz  ٿ   α 
 عħ ϴ ö Ͽ 뿡 ־  ؿ ȭ
  ־. 
  ũ   Ͽ ϰְ  ǿ 
  ϸ  η Ȱ 뼺 ϼ 
ߴ. ׿ ϸ   ñ ϳ̴. , , , ǽĵ
  ǥ پϰ   ̵ ̴  ̳, 
 ü迡 ־   ٺ ġѴٰ Ѵ.
 ٽ   ü迡 ִ   а  
ǥ ִ  ƴ ״ Ӿ ϰ ִ. ü  ȥ̿,
ǥ  ü ״ Ѵ.
   ü̶ 츮  ġ  Ͻ ִ μ ϰ
 翡  츮  ߱ ǹѴ. ũ 
ü Ưμ, ù° ְ и ʿ  ǽ Ѵ. Ĵϻ忡
ϴ ھ ü , ̷  ǽ ¿ ƴ ڿ ˷ ,
ǽİ ,   븳 ʿǸ     
ٰ Ѵ. ׸Ͽ   ھ ׵θ  ھƿ Ͽ
ٰ Ѵ.  ü  ü ־ ̰ Ͽ  ǹ̿
 Ÿ缺 ־ ٸ  ܺ  ʿ  ʴ´ٰ Ѵ.
 ü ڸ ȮǼ ϰ ִٴ ̴.
   ü迡 ϻȰ    ȭ  Ѵٰ
Ѵ.  ü    ǥ  ʿѴ.  ¡
ǥ̳ Ͻø  ̴. ̵ ǥ   ׸ ȭ Ư
 ޱ   ״ صǾ ȵȴ. ũ ϱ⸦
   ü̶   ٰ Ѵ.  ü 
 Ư  ȿ ߻ϸ ؼǰ ֱ ̴.
׷  ü ,   츮  ؼ ʿϴ 
̴. 츮 װ ߻̰ ΰ  üϰ ؼ 
ڶ θ, 츮 װ ǽİ   ؼ  ̶
θٴ ̴. ׷  ΰݰ ΰ   ؼ ʿϴ
 ̶ ̴.
  ̷  ʿ ұϰ 츮 װ     ִ 
װ 츮 ΰ   Ͱ 缺  ֱ ̶ Ѵ.
츮 ȥ Ȥ ھư  翡 ϰ ֱ 빮 ̴.  
 Ͽ 츮 ھƸ ߰ϰ ؾ Ѵٴ ̴.
׷ ؼ    ۾Ƽ ھƿ Ǿ ִ  ͵
ؾ Ѵٰ Ѵ. Ư  ھƹ߰  ϰ ִ.
 ǥ  Ͽ ھƸ ȭŰ  η  ȭϴ Ϳ
ִٴ ̴. ̰  ̴. 


      


    1. εö  

  ΰ  Ͽ Ǵ  پ  ǵ ӿ
ڱ ڽ  ʰ ׵ ȣ  ü質  Ģ ãƼ
ľ   ΰ  ִ  䱸̴. ̷ 䱸
ÿ  ⿡ ϰ ȥ ӿ  Ⱘ  ʰ
ǹִ ൿ ϱ  õ 䱸 ϴ ̴. Ӹ ƴ϶
ڽ 縦 ϴ  ϰ     Ŀ  Һϰ
 ٿ 縦 ã ͵   η ߱    ö
ɻ翴 Ʋ. ̷ , õ,  屸 Ű 
    ̴. 
  츮 ̹  εö پ  캸Ҵ.  ⼭
 پ      ƶ   ṵ̈
 ν εö ü ؿ  ǰ Ѵ.
켱 εö پ 󼼰 Ŀ ִ ñ 縦  Ҵ°
  .
 1. ʱ ε ü پ 󼼰踦 ״ ޾Ƶ̴ 
 . ׷鼭 ׵    鿡 Ͽ ȴٰ
Ͼ   ΰ μ ߴ. ׷ ׵  ٴ
󼼰踦 ȥ̳  ̳ ڿ     ȯ
Ϸ   ʾҴ. ׷ ε鵵 ʱ⿡ ͼ 
Ŀ   ϳ 簡  ϰ Ǿ.  翡 
߱ Ĵϻ忡 ͼ  ǰ Ǿ. Ĵϻ 
ñ 縦 常̶ ҷ  常  ΰ  
Ʈ Ͻߴ. ÿ ΰ   ΰ ǽ Ž Ͽ
 ľǵǾ.
 2. Ÿ Ĵϻ ϳ  縦 Žϴ Ͽ ̻
źϰ  ΰ    ҵ,   ,  Ȥ
ǵ   ľϴ    ߴ. ̷
 ҵ  ڼ    ƴ϶  ǻϸ
 ߻ϴ ۿ̳ μ ֵǾ. ׷ Ÿ ̷
̰  ҵ鸸 ϴ  η  ʾҴ.
ù° ̷ ҵ  Ҹ  ·μ ̶ 
̰ μ ϱ  縦  ̴. ° ҵ鰣
ȣۿ 꿡   Ģ  Ÿ ƴ. ⼳
 ̴.   ü  ױ  ̴.
 3.  ·ö ҽºұ  ٿ  ǥϸ鼭 ұʹ
޸ ٿ ҵ  ͵  ʰ  ڵ  ڵ տ
Ͽ ̷ , , ȭ, dz . Ӹ ƴ϶ ð, , DZٵ ھƵ鵵
 ü Ѵ. ̷ ü ܿ ,  Ȥ , , Ư,
 ֵμ 踦 ľϸ ̵ ֵ   
  ̴.
  ̳ 縦 ټ   ü,  , , ġ, , ȥ
ľϸ íī  ö , , ȭ, dz 4Ҹ  ü
ϴ ̴. 
  ٸ δ  ̿ Ÿ ö Ű ȥ  
  ü ľϸ, Űö  ϳ   
ټ ȥ鸸  ü Ѵ.
 4. ̻  踦 ٿ  ؿ Ͽ  ٿ 󼼰
پ缺   Ÿ ȯ  ϳ 翡 Ͽ 踦 
ؼϴ Ͽ  ִ. ̷  Ĵϻ忡 ̹ ã  
 װ  ̷   ºұ öа ̷
Ÿöп̴. 켱 ߰öп    ϴ  Ͽ 
Ѵ.   ̸ ٸ ƴ  ̴. ׷ ߰öп
̶ 󼼰   ִ ü ƴϸ  踦 ʿϿ ִ
 ̻ 絵 ƴϴ.  ü  ٷ ̸  ̴.
 ̴     һ ȯ̸  Ӽ ܰ迡
θ  ̴. ö  ϸ鼭   Ͽ 
踦 ϰ Ѵ. 
    ºұ   ޾ Ĵϻ [帶]
ؼϰ ö Ͽ    ī ̷ Ÿö
̴. ⼭  , , 񿭷μ 常 Ϲ ̸
 ̿  ȥ̳  繰   Ʒ Ÿ
ȯ ̴. ׷  常  缺 ϸ鼭 󸶴ڸ
߽ ž Ÿ öڵ ÿ οȥ  缺
Ϸ  Ÿö ״.
   ̻    ִ ñ  󼼰
ΰ賻  踦 캼   츮   4 ̷
  ִ.
 1. ñ⼳:   ³Ŀ ϴ μ  繰
 ڵ  ̷ٴ ̴. ڵ տ Ͽ ڵ
ٸ ο ͵ μ Ѵٴ ̷̴. ̰   ӿ ̹ ԵǾ
 ʴٴ ߹  ̴.
 2. :  ö п ԰ μ پ 󼼰踦 
 ٺ    ̴.    ȭ  
  ӿ ̹   ִٴ  ϴ ̴.
     а ߹̶ ٺ ̴  ׷
ұϰ ϴ 󼼰    ʴ  ü ϴ
 ġϰ ִ. ׷ ұ ̷ Ÿö ̷ ΰ
ôѴ. ֳϸ   ̶     ؾ Ѵٴ
 ׵  ݷ̴. ׷ ұ ̷ Ÿ ̷ κ
ΰ ݴǴ  ̲ ȴ.  ұ ϸ  ϹǷ
ε    ۿ ٴ  ϴ ݸ ̷ Ÿ ϰ
پ  ȯ     缺  Ѵ. 常
  ̴. ׸Ͽ 츮   ΰ ΰ  ߰ϰ
ȴ.
 3. ռ:  Ÿ ٺ ħ ٰ μ  繰 
 ° ȭտ Ͽ  ߻Ѵٴ ̸  ü Ǿ
迡 ãƺ  ٴ ̴. ö ڼ  迡  
ٿ ̸ ߹  ·а ޸  ̳ ü
Ѵ. · 繰 μ   ü  ұ
  ǵ鸸   ̴.
   ü ϰ    հ   ұ
 ΰ Ӽ̳   ϱ ƴٴ  ޾Ҵ. ̿
ο \ü Ͽ  üȭϴ  Ÿ´.
ݰ ̳  ߰ö ̷  ôϰ  ڼ
 ϰ Ǿ. ̿  ̶  迡 ΰ
̶    Ӽ  Ǵ  
ʴ ̴. ö 縦   ٸ δ 
μ   ΰа ణ 缺 ̰ ִ. ׷
 İ   ٸ  ̴.
 4. :̰ 󼼰   پ缺   Ÿ ȯ
 常 Ȥ Ʈ  ϴ طμ ̷ Ÿö
̴. ߰öп  ⼭ ΰ̶ μ
󼼰迡 Ÿ ̷̸ ϻ  κʹ   
ñ     Ҿ  ̴.  
 常  ΰ踦    ̴. ׷ ϻ   
   󼼰  常  Ͽ Ÿ 
常     ִ. ̷ 濡 ̷ Ÿö
常 ΰ ϴ ̴.  󸶴ڸ  ž
Ÿöڵ  ϰ   ϰ ִٰ   ִ.

    2. ε  ְ 
  1. α  
  ٿ Ÿ ְ ϸ ִ    ֵƴ. δ
ؿ ް  ϴ ŵ ̰ Ȱϴ ϴ ְ  ؿ 
  ŵ Ȱϴ ߱ǰ Ʒ 츮  ִ ϰ ձ 
ִ. ׷ Ŀ α  ְ    ִ ̺ 
   ȴ.  ִ  â ü   Ǯϴ
ϰ  üμ 츮  ִ     
ϳ  ʴ´.
   󸶽         21
() Ǿ ִٰ Ѵ.   ߿ κ ϰ° ġϰ
ִ.  δ ö    Ƹٿ 6 õ谡  ű⿡
ַ ŵ ϰ   δ Ż θ 7 ϼ谡 ־
(θ ) ȭ   ִ.  Ż ؿ  7 
 ־ Ʒ    뽺  ȴ. ̷  
   ӿ   ٸ κ ݸǾ ִٰ Ѵ.
   ũ 翡 Ͽ ε õڵ  ̶ ߰
ũⰡ  ó ϰ ,    ̷
  Ѿ 踦 ϳ Ŵϰ   ߴ. 
߽ɿ ̻ ־ ؿ ް     ִ.  ̻ 濡
ٴٸ ̿ ΰ 4     ʿ ִ  
μ ̰ ΰ  ̸   ʿ ߻꿡 Ͽ
ݸǾ 'ٶŸڼյ ' ε ġ ִٰ Ͼ. 
  Ǫ󳪵鿡 Ÿ ִ  ̺    Ѵ. ׸Ͽ
 ̻ ѷΰ ִ ȯ Ǿ ȯ  'ö'
 Ҹ ٸ ϳ  Ͽ ȯ ѷο ִ. ̷  Ͽ
 ̻ ߽ Ͽ  7 ȯ  Ǿ  
 ̿  ұ, , , , ũ, ,   ٴٰ ִٰ ߴ.
  2. ұ ְ 
  ұ ְ     ִ Ӽ, ,   Ǿִ.
    μ   ߻ ¾ ̴. Ӱ
, , , , ,  ϴ 6     ִ μ
׵   ¾ Ǵ 5 翵 Ǿ ִ.
   ִ κ Ͽ Ʊ, , , ׸ Ӽ  
մ ŵ ϴ ̴.  Ͽ  ο , ߿ ,
      8  ̰ ִٰ Ѵ.
   ǥ鿡 ϸ ŵ ̻  ִ õ迡 Ѵ.
ɻõ, ߸õ, õ(Ÿ)  6 õ ִ.
  Ӽ  ̼   谡 ִ. ⿡ , ,  3 
⿡ ϴ ڵ    ִٰ Ѵ.   ܰ 
Ͽ  μ 17 õ Ǿ ִ.
    谡 ִ. ̰  μ ⿡  
 ʴ´.   븸  ̴.  赵 
 Ͽ   ִ μ 繫  ִ.  ó,
Ĺó, ó, ׸ ó̴.  踦 ļ  Ȥ
õ̶ θ. 

  3. εö  ġ, ȭ ǥ

  *  2500-1500
  ġ, ȭ: ٷ ϶ δ 
  *  1500-1000
  ġ, ȭ: Ƹ εħ
  öл:   Ÿ 
  *  1000-700
  ġ, ȭ:  , 帶 
  *  700-600
  ġ, ȭ: Ƹε   ϰ 
  öл: ʱ Ĵϻ , ĸ
  *  600-500
  ġ, ȭ: ֱ(,ڻ) ùȭ ߴ
  öл: Ÿ Ÿ ź(566), ܵ, Ϻ
  *  500-400
  öл: Ÿ Ÿ (486), ջ缺 ϰ
  *  400-300
  ġ, ȭ: Ĵϴ ȭ , ˷ εħ(326),
î Ÿ 츮 (320), īƿ
  öл: º,ߺ ٺп, ߱ Ĵϻ , īʶ
  *  300-200
  ġ, ȭ: Ƽī (269)
  öл: ұ Ȯ Ϸ , ı Ĵϻ, 
  *  200-0
  ġ, ȭ:  (186),Ϻ ձ
[] , [ϹٶŸ], Ÿϳ( 1)
  öл: ĺұ , [ٰٵ Ÿ],
  öĵ : ź߸, ī, Ÿ, ̴̹, ٴٶ߳
  *  1-100
  ġ, ȭ: 
  öл: ºұ  ʱ°, [̸] []
  *  100-200
  ġ, ȭ: īϽī
  öл: [·а] [] [ڷ]
  *  200-300
  ġ, ȭ: Mahabharata Ramayana ϰ, Yajnavalkya Smrti
  öл: [Žа], Aryadeva Harivarman, Maitreya
  *  300-400
  ġ, ȭ: Ÿ(318), Kalidasa, Visnu-purana,  
  öл: Asanga, Vasubandhu [帶], [䰡], [м], []
  *  400-500
  ġ, ȭ:  εħ
  öл: , , , Vallabhi 
  *  500-600
  ġ, ȭ: Ÿ ر
  öл: ȣ, û, ȣ, 
  *  600-700
  ġ, ȭ: Harsa (606), ,  
  öл: , , Ī, Ī
  *  700-800
  ġ, ȭ: ȶ
  *  1000-1100
  ġ, ȭ: ȸ εħ
  *  1200-1300
  ġ, ȭ: ȸ ε 
  *  1300-1400
  ġ, ȭ: Vijayanagara 
  *  1500-1600
  ġ, ȭ:  Akbar
  *  1600-1700
  ġ, ȭ: εȸ 
  *  1700-1800
  ġ, ȭ:  Ҷ  
  *  1800-1900
  ġ, ȭ:  ġ
  *  1900-
  ġ, ȭ: Gandhi, Tagore ε (1947)
  • By hoya
  • on September 23, 2010 am 12:12

Description : 인도철학사
지은이: 길희성
펴낸곳: (주) 민음사
1984년 4월 30일 초판발행
1994년 2월 25일 펴냄(8쇄)


길희성: 서울대학교 문리대 철학과 졸업. 하바드대학교에서 비교종교학 전공.
저서- Chinul, the Founder of the Korean Son Tradition
현재 서강대학교 종교학과 교수



머리말
이 책은 인도철학의 간략한 사적 개관을 줌과 동시에 각 학파들의 철학사상을 인간적으로
소개하려는 의도에서 씌어졌다.
인도의 철학적 전통은 그 장구한 역사와 심오한 사색, 사상의 다양성과 영향력, 그리고
산출된 문헌들의 방대함에 있어서 세계의 어느 문화권에서 형성된 철학과도 비견할 만한
전통이다.
따라서 인도는 물론 서구라파와 일본의 많은 하자들의 연구의 대상이 되어 왔다. 그러나
우리 나라에 있어서 인도철학의 연구라는 것은 지극히 미약한 상태에 있다는 것은 주지의
사실이다.
이것은 불교가 우리 나라의 문화적 전통의 한 근간을 이루고 있다는 것에 비추어 볼 때
더욱더 유감스러운 일이라 아니할 수 없다. 왜냐하면 비록 불교가 인도에서 발생하여
세계적인 종교로 발전했음에도 불구하고 불교

Tags: 인도, 대학교, 길희성

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